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      Slow-pull capillary technique versus suction technique in endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration for diagnosing diseases involving hilar and mediastinal lymph node enlargement

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          Abstract

          Background:

          Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a widely used, safe, and accurate technique for obtaining pathological specimens to be used in the diagnosis of diseases involving lung hilar and mediastinal lymph node (LN) enlargement. However, application of the suction technique during EBUS-TBNA remains controversial. In addition, the effectiveness of the slow-pull capillary technique for the diagnosis of pancreatic masses was recently reported. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of EBUS-TBNA using these two techniques.

          Methods:

          The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), positive predictive value (PPV), and availability of tissue cores of the suction and slow-pull capillary techniques were studied retrospectively in patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA for the diagnosis of diseases involving lung hilar and mediastinal LN enlargement.

          Results:

          A total of 97 patients with hilar and mediastinal LN enlargement underwent EBUS-TBNA; 30 patients underwent the suction technique, 56 patients underwent the slow-pull capillary technique, 5 patients underwent both techniques, and 6 patients had failed operations. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, NPV, PPV, and the number of tissue cores obtained with the suction and slow-pull capillary techniques were 66.67% versus 85.71% ( p = 0.039), 43.75% versus 85.42% ( p < 0.001), 92.86% versus 87.5% ( p > 0.05), 59.09% versus 50% ( p > 0.05), 87.5% versus 97.62% ( p > 0.05), and 19 versus 50 ( p = 0.004), respectively. In both univariate and multivariate analyses, the acquisition of tissue core was significantly associated with the diagnostic accuracy of EBUS-TBNA. Moreover, the slow-pull capillary technique was significantly associated with the acquisition of tissue core in EBUS-TBNA. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the blood contamination of samples.

          Conclusions:

          Use of the slow-pull capillary technique in EBUS-TBNA can significantly increase the accuracy related to the diagnosis of diseases involving hilar and mediastinal LN enlargement by improving the acquisition of tissue core.

          The reviews of this paper are available via the supplemental material section.

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          Most cited references 38

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          The IASLC lung cancer staging project: a proposal for a new international lymph node map in the forthcoming seventh edition of the TNM classification for lung cancer.

          The accurate assessment of lymph node involvement is an important part of the management of lung cancer. Lymph node "maps" have been used to describe the location of nodal metastases. However, discrepancies in nomenclature among maps used by Asian and Western countries hinder analyses of lung cancer treatment outcome. To achieve uniformity and to promote future analyses of a planned prospective international database, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer proposes a new lymph node map which reconciles differences among currently used maps, and provides precise anatomic definitions for all lymph node stations. A method of grouping lymph node stations together into "zones" is also proposed for the purposes of future survival analyses.
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            Effectiveness and safety of endobronchial ultrasound-transbronchial needle aspiration: a systematic review.

            The aim of the present systematic review was to assess the effectiveness and safety of real time endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) in patients with suspected or known bronchopulmonary carcinoma, as well as in other clinical indications presented by lymphatic adenopathies. A systematic review was carried out in November 2007 and updated in April 2008 using the main databases. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to the papers retrieved. A total of 20 publications were included. Of these, 14 were original studies that investigated the clinical usefulness of the technique in visualising and staging lymph nodes in patients with suspected or established lung cancer. Sensitivity ranged 85-100% and negative predictive value ranged 11-97.4%. Three studies assessed the clinical usefulness of the technique in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. EBUS-TBNA was diagnostic in 88-93% of patients. One retrospective study evaluated the use of EBUS-TBNA in the diagnosis of lymphoma. None of the studies included in the present review reported important complications. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration is a safe and highly accurate procedure for the examination and staging of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes in patients with known or suspected lung malignancy. The evidence is promising for sarcoidosis but is not sufficient for lymphoma.
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              Randomized controlled trial of EUS-guided fine needle aspiration techniques for the detection of malignant lymphadenopathy.

              EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is a highly accurate method of detecting malignant lymphadenopathy. The optimal methods for performing EUS-FNA to maximize sensitivity and to minimize the number of needle passes necessary are unknown. This is a report of the results of a prospective randomized controlled trial to determine the effect of suction, the site of FNA (edge or center of lymph node), and the method of preparation of cytologic specimens on accuracy, number of needle passes needed, and specimen quality. Consecutive patients with lymphadenopathy detected by EUS underwent FNA. Each lymph node was sampled with or without suction and from the edge or center in a 2 x 2 factorial design. The samples were expressed onto slides for cytology, and the residual material in the needle was analyzed by the cytospin-cellblock technique. Each aspirate was individually characterized for a diagnosis of malignancy, cellularity, and bloodiness. Forty-three patients with a total of 46 lymph nodes were evaluated. The final lymph node diagnosis was benign in 22 (48%), "suspicious for malignancy" in 6 (13%), and malignant in 18 (39%). The use of suction was associated with an increase in the cellularity of the specimen, but did not improve the likelihood of obtaining a correct diagnosis (OR 1.52: 95% CI [0.81, 2.85]). Samples obtained with suction were of worse quality because of excessive bloodiness (OR 4.7: 95% CI [1.99, 11.24]). Aspiration from the edge of the lymph node (compared with the center) did not increase the likelihood of a correct diagnosis (OR 1.16: 95% CI [0.42, 3.21]). For 78% of malignant lymph nodes, the correct diagnosis was obtained on the first needle pass and for 100% by the third pass. Cytospin-cellblock methods did not add any additional diagnostic information compared with direct smear cytology. The traditional method of applying suction during EUS-FNA does not improve diagnostic accuracy and worsens specimen bloodiness compared with FNA without suction. The site of FNA within the lymph node does not affect accuracy. When EUS-FNA is necessary, our recommendation is up to 3 FNAs without suction from the most convenient and safe location within abnormal-appearing lymph nodes.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Ther Adv Respir Dis
                Ther Adv Respir Dis
                TAR
                sptar
                Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
                SAGE Publications (Sage UK: London, England )
                1753-4658
                1753-4666
                27 February 2020
                Jan-Dec 2020
                : 14
                Affiliations
                Department of Respiratory Medicine, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
                Department of Respiratory Medicine, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
                Department of Respiratory Medicine, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
                Department of Respiratory Medicine, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
                Department of Respiratory Medicine, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
                Department of Respiratory Medicine, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
                Department of Respiratory Medicine, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 95, Yong’an Road, Xicheng District, Beijing, China
                Author notes
                Article
                10.1177_1753466620907037
                10.1177/1753466620907037
                7047425
                32103709
                © The Author(s), 2020

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages ( https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

                Categories
                Original Research
                Custom metadata
                January-December 2020
                ts1

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