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      Apolipoproteins A1, B, and apoB/apoA1 ratio are associated with first ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction but not with recurrent events during long-term follow-up

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          The current way to assess the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is to measure conventional lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol fractions. Despite the success of statin treatment, residual cardiovascular risk remains high. Therefore, the value of extensive serum apolipoprotein (apo) profiling to assess the risk of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients with STEMI was investigated in a case–control design.

          Methods and results

          Serum apo levels were measured using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry in 299 healthy individuals and 220 patients with STEMI. First, the association of apo profiles in baseline samples with risk of STEMI was examined, and second, the association of apo profiles at baseline with risk of recurrent MACE in patients with STEMI in a longitudinal study design was studied. High baseline (> 1.25 g/L) apoA1 levels were associated with a decreased risk of STEMI [odds ratio (OR) 0.17; 95% CI 0.11–0.26], whereas high apoB (> 1.00 g/L) levels (OR 2.17; 95% CI 1.40–3.36) and apoB/apoA1 ratio (OR per 1 SD (OR/SD): 2.16; 95% CI 1.76–2.65) were associated with an increased risk. Very-low-density-lipoprotein (VLDL)-associated apos gave conflicting results. Neither conventional lipid levels nor apo levels were associated with MACE in the STEMI group.


          In conclusion, apoA1, apoB, and apoB/apoA1 were strongly associated with risk of STEMI. No clear relation between VLDL-associated apos and the risk of STEMI was found. Neither baseline serum apos nor lipids predicted MACE in statin-treated patients during long-term follow-up after a first STEMI.

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          Most cited references 32

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          2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults

          Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.
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            Randomised trial of cholesterol lowering in 4444 patients with coronary heart disease: the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S)

            Drug therapy for hypercholesterolaemia has remained controversial mainly because of insufficient clinical trial evidence for improved survival. The present trial was designed to evaluate the effect of cholesterol lowering with simvastatin on mortality and morbidity in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). 4444 patients with angina pectoris or previous myocardial infarction and serum cholesterol 5.5-8.0 mmol/L on a lipid-lowering diet were randomised to double-blind treatment with simvastatin or placebo. Over the 5.4 years median follow-up period, simvastatin produced mean changes in total cholesterol, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol of -25%, -35%, and +8%, respectively, with few adverse effects. 256 patients (12%) in the placebo group died, compared with 182 (8%) in the simvastatin group. The relative risk of death in the simvastatin group was 0.70 (95% CI 0.58-0.85, p = 0.0003). The 6-year probabilities of survival in the placebo and simvastatin groups were 87.6% and 91.3%, respectively. There were 189 coronary deaths in the placebo group and 111 in the simvastatin group (relative risk 0.58, 95% CI 0.46-0.73), while noncardiovascular causes accounted for 49 and 46 deaths, respectively. 622 patients (28%) in the placebo group and 431 (19%) in the simvastatin group had one or more major coronary events. The relative risk was 0.66 (95% CI 0.59-0.75, p < 0.00001), and the respective probabilities of escaping such events were 70.5% and 79.6%. This risk was also significantly reduced in subgroups consisting of women and patients of both sexes aged 60 or more. Other benefits of treatment included a 37% reduction (p < 0.00001) in the risk of undergoing myocardial revascularisation procedures. This study shows that long-term treatment with simvastatin is safe and improves survival in CHD patients.
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              Use of multiple biomarkers to improve the prediction of death from cardiovascular causes.

              The incremental usefulness of adding multiple biomarkers from different disease pathways for predicting the risk of death from cardiovascular causes has not, to our knowledge, been evaluated among the elderly. We used data from the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM), a community-based cohort of elderly men, to investigate whether a combination of biomarkers that reflect myocardial cell damage, left ventricular dysfunction, renal failure, and inflammation (troponin I, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, cystatin C, and C-reactive protein, respectively) improved the risk stratification of a person beyond an assessment that was based on the established risk factors for cardiovascular disease (age, systolic blood pressure, use or nonuse of antihypertensive treatment, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, use or nonuse of lipid-lowering treatment, presence or absence of diabetes, smoking status, and body-mass index). During follow-up (median, 10.0 years), 315 of the 1135 participants in our study (mean age, 71 years at baseline) died; 136 deaths were the result of cardiovascular disease. In Cox proportional-hazards models adjusted for established risk factors, all of the biomarkers significantly predicted the risk of death from cardiovascular causes. The C statistic increased significantly when the four biomarkers were incorporated into a model with established risk factors, both in the whole cohort (C statistic with biomarkers vs. without biomarkers, 0.766 vs. 0.664; P<0.001) and in the group of 661 participants who did not have cardiovascular disease at baseline (0.748 vs. 0.688, P=0.03). The improvement in risk assessment remained strong when it was estimated by other statistical measures of model discrimination, calibration, and global fit. Our data suggest that in elderly men with or without prevalent cardiovascular disease, the simultaneous addition of several biomarkers of cardiovascular and renal abnormalities substantially improves the risk stratification for death from cardiovascular causes beyond that of a model that is based only on established risk factors. Copyright 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society.

                Author and article information

                31-71-5265524 , m.c.bodde@lumc.nl
                Clin Res Cardiol
                Clin Res Cardiol
                Clinical Research in Cardiology
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                8 October 2018
                8 October 2018
                : 108
                : 5
                : 520-538
                [1 ]ISNI 0000000089452978, GRID grid.10419.3d, Department of Cardiology, C5-P, , Leiden University Medical Center, ; P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands
                [2 ]ISNI 0000000089452978, GRID grid.10419.3d, Department of Epidemiology, , Leiden University Medical Center, ; Leiden, The Netherlands
                [3 ]ISNI 0000000089452978, GRID grid.10419.3d, Department of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, , Leiden University Medical Center, ; Leiden, The Netherlands
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

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                © Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019


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