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      Examining the Structure of Negative Affect Regulation and Its Association With Hedonic and Psychological Wellbeing


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          The present study examines the structure of negative affect regulation strategies by confirmatory factor analysis. A total of 264 students ( n = 187 women, 65 men) ( M = 24 years; SD = 9.32) took part in this study. Results show a good fit indices for a three facets model: (1) modification of situation (problem-directed action, seeking emotional and instrumental social support, psychological abandonment and social isolation); (2) attentional deployment and cognitive change (distraction, acceptance, gratitude, rumination, reappraisal, spirituality, and social comparison); and (3) response modification (suppression, active and passive physiological, humor and warmth, venting, confrontation, and regulated emotional expression). The scale validity is confirmed through correlations between the expanded of Mood Affect Regulation Scale dimensions including dimensions of dispositional reappraisal and suppression, and hedonic and psychological well-being. Participants report an adaptive profile with high psychological well-being, even if they report low positive affect, suggesting a greater relevance of eudaimonic than hedonic well-being for affect regulation.

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          Dealing with feeling: a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of strategies derived from the process model of emotion regulation.

          The present meta-analysis investigated the effectiveness of strategies derived from the process model of emotion regulation in modifying emotional outcomes as indexed by experiential, behavioral, and physiological measures. A systematic search of the literature identified 306 experimental comparisons of different emotion regulation (ER) strategies. ER instructions were coded according to a new taxonomy, and meta-analysis was used to evaluate the effectiveness of each strategy across studies. The findings revealed differences in effectiveness between ER processes: Attentional deployment had no effect on emotional outcomes (d(+) = 0.00), response modulation had a small effect (d(+) = 0.16), and cognitive change had a small-to-medium effect (d(+) = 0.36). There were also important within-process differences. We identified 7 types of attentional deployment, 4 types of cognitive change, and 4 types of response modulation, and these distinctions had a substantial influence on effectiveness. Whereas distraction was an effective way to regulate emotions (d(+) = 0.27), concentration was not (d(+) = -0.26). Similarly, suppressing the expression of emotion proved effective (d(+) = 0.32), but suppressing the experience of emotion or suppressing thoughts of the emotion-eliciting event did not (d(+) = -0.04 and -0.12, respectively). Finally, reappraising the emotional response proved less effective (d(+) = 0.23) than reappraising the emotional stimulus (d(+) = 0.36) or using perspective taking (d(+) = 0.45). The review also identified several moderators of strategy effectiveness including factors related to the (a) to-be-regulated emotion, (b) frequency of use and intended purpose of the ER strategy, (c) study design, and (d) study characteristics.
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            Emotion Elicits the Social Sharing of Emotion: Theory and Empirical Review

            B Rimé (2009)
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              Searching for the structure of coping: a review and critique of category systems for classifying ways of coping.

              From analyzing 100 assessments of coping, the authors critiqued strategies and identified best practices for constructing category systems. From current systems, a list of 400 ways of coping was compiled. For constructing lower order categories, the authors concluded that confirmatory factor analysis should replace the 2 most common strategies (exploratory factor analysis and rational sorting). For higher order categories, they recommend that the 3 most common distinctions (problem- vs. emotion-focused, approach vs. avoidance, and cognitive vs. behavioral) no longer be used. Instead, the authors recommend hierarchical systems of action types (e.g., proximity seeking, accommodation). From analysis of 6 such systems, 13 potential core families of coping were identified. Future steps involve deciding how to organize these families, using their functional homogeneity and distinctiveness, and especially their links to adaptive processes.

                Author and article information

                Front Psychol
                Front Psychol
                Front. Psychol.
                Frontiers in Psychology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                29 August 2018
                : 9
                : 1592
                [1] 1Department of Social Psychology and Methodology of Behavioural Sciences, University of Basque Country , Gipuzkoa, Spain
                [2] 2Department of Social Psychology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Burgos , Burgos, Spain
                Author notes

                Edited by: Wenjie Duan, Wuhan University, China

                Reviewed by: Jesús Nicasio García Sánchez, Universidad de León, Spain; Michael S. Dempsey, Boston University, United States

                *Correspondence: Silvia Ubillos-Landa, subillos@ 123456ubu.es

                This article was submitted to Educational Psychology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology

                Copyright © 2018 Puente-Martínez, Páez, Ubillos-Landa and Da Costa-Dutra.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 23 October 2017
                : 09 August 2018
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 57, Pages: 14, Words: 0
                Original Research

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                measure of affect regulation,hedonic and psychological well-being,coping,anger,sadness


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