This prospective study was designed to evaluate the eventual correction of anemia and iron status in 39 iron-deficient uremics starting hemodialysis. Nine patients (control group) had no iron supplementation, 10 had oral ferrous iron, and 20 were treated with intravenous iron gluconate. Follow-up periods were 12 months for the control group and 26 months for patients treated with oral or intravenous iron. No patient was treated with erythropoietin. At zero time, all patients were anemic (Hb <78 g/l) and showed signs of severe iron deficiency, diagnosed on the basis of depleted bone marrow iron stores, reduced hemoglobin iron, and transferrin saturation <21%. The hemoglobin levels, observed in patients of the control and the oral iron groups at the end of the follow-up periods, were not significantly different from those detected at zero time. In contradistinction, patients treated with intravenous iron showed after 26 months of follow-up a significant increase of blood hemoglobin values, reaching a mean value of 126 g/l. So far, this evidence supports both the concept that iron absorption is compromised in chronic uremics and that the parenteral way is the more effective route for iron replacement in this specific group of patients.