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      Leaf epidermal micromorphology defining the clades in Cinnamomum (Lauraceae)

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      PhytoKeys

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          In this study, we sampled 48 species of Asian Cinnamomum covering the species groups that were identified in recent phylogenetic studies and conducted leaf micromorphological observations using both light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Synapomorphies were determined by means of mapping micromorphological characters on a phylogenetic tree. The results indicate that Cinnamomum exhibits two different types of leaf upper epidermis: Type I has smooth/non-reticulate periclinal walls whereas Type II has reticulate periclinal walls and is unusual in the family Lauraceae. We found that the two types of micromorphological characters are clade-specific, sect. Camphora s.s. possesses Type I leaf upper epidermis, and sect. Cinnamomum s.l. has Type II leaf upper epidermis. Our study also reveals that C. saxatile, a member of sect. Camphora s.l. in the traditional classification, actually has Type II leaf upper epidermis, thus reinforcing the result of a recent molecular phylogeny that has this species in a clade consisting mainly of species of sect. Cinnamomum.

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          MAFFT Multiple Sequence Alignment Software Version 7: Improvements in Performance and Usability

          We report a major update of the MAFFT multiple sequence alignment program. This version has several new features, including options for adding unaligned sequences into an existing alignment, adjustment of direction in nucleotide alignment, constrained alignment and parallel processing, which were implemented after the previous major update. This report shows actual examples to explain how these features work, alone and in combination. Some examples incorrectly aligned by MAFFT are also shown to clarify its limitations. We discuss how to avoid misalignments, and our ongoing efforts to overcome such limitations.
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            MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees

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              A Likelihood Approach to Estimating Phylogeny from Discrete Morphological Character Data

               Paul Lewis (2001)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                PhytoKeys
                PK
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2003
                1314-2011
                October 04 2021
                October 04 2021
                : 182
                : 125-148
                Article
                10.3897/phytokeys.182.67289
                © 2021

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