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      Prognostic Factors in Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Glomerulonephritis with Severe Glomerular Sclerosis: A National Registry-Based Cohort Study

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          Abstract

          Background

          Classification of patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated glomerulonephritis (ANCA-GN) into histological classes is useful for predicting a patient's risk of progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, even in the worst prognostic group, the 5-year end-stage renal disease-free survival rate is as high as 50%.

          Objectives

          To investigate those prognostic factors indicative of progression to ESRD in patients with ANCA-GN and sclerosing histology.

          Methods

          Patients from the Norwegian Kidney Biopsy Registry between 1991 and 2012 who had biopsy verified pauci-immune glomerulonephritis, positive ANCA serology, and sclerosing histology were included. Cases with ESRD during follow-up were identified via linkage with the Norwegian Renal Registry. Potential prognostic factors with relevant cut-offs were compared in patients with and without progression to ESRD during follow-up.

          Results

          Of 23 included patients, 10 progressed to ESRD. ESRD patients had a lower initial estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; 21 versus 52 ml/min/1.73 m 2) and a lower percentage of normal glomeruli (4% versus 15%). Five-year risks of ESRD with eGFR >15 versus ≤15 ml/min/1.73 m 2 were 77% and 15%, with percentage normal glomeruli >10% versus ≤10%, 83% and 39%.

          Conclusions

          eGFR and percentage of normal glomeruli are strong risk factors for ESRD in ANCA-GN with sclerosing histology.

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          Most cited references32

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          ANCA Glomerulonephritis and Vasculitis.

          ANCA vasculitis has an associated autoimmune response that produces ANCAs that induce distinct pathologic lesions. Pauci-immune necrotizing and crescentic GN is a frequent component of ANCA vasculitis. ANCA vasculitis is associated with ANCA specific for myeloperoxidase (MPO-ANCA) or proteinase 3 (PR3-ANCA). A diagnosis of ANCA vasculitis should always specify the serotype as MPO-ANCA positive, PR3-ANCA positive, or ANCA-negative. To fully characterize a patient, the serotype also should be accompanied by the clinicopathologic variant if this can be determined: microscopic polyangiitis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener), eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss), or renal-limited vasculitis. ANCA vasculitis is most prevalent in individuals >50 years old. There are racial/ethnic and geographic influences on the prevalence, serotype frequencies, and clinicopathologic phenotypes. There is clinical, in vitro, and animal model evidence that ANCAs cause disease by activating neutrophils to attack small vessels. Immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive therapies are used to induce remission, maintain remission, and treat relapses. Over recent years, there have been major advances in optimizing treatment by minimizing toxic therapy and utilizing more targeted therapy.
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            Outcomes from studies of antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody associated vasculitis: a systematic review by the European League Against Rheumatism systemic vasculitis task force.

            We undertook a systematic literature review as a background to the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations for conducting clinical trials in anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody associated vasculitis (AAV), and to assess the quality of evidence for outcome measures in AAV. Using a systematic Medline search, we categorised the identified studies according to diagnoses. Factors affecting remission, relapse, renal function and overall survival were identified. A total of 44 papers were reviewed from 502 identified by our search criteria. There was considerable inconsistency in definitions of end points. Remission rates varied from 30% to 93% in Wegener granulomatosis (WG), 75% to 89% in microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and 81% to 91% in Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS). The 5-year survival for WG, MPA and CSS was 74-91%, 45-76% and 60-97%. Relapse (variably defined) was common in the first 2 years but the frequency varied: 18% to 60% in WG, 8% in MPA, and 35% in CSS. The rate of renal survival in WG varied from 23% at 15 months to 23% at 120 months. used to assess morbidity varied between studies. Ignoring the variations in definitions of the stage of disease, factors influencing remission, relapse, renal and overall survival included immunosuppressive therapy used, type of organ involvement, presence of ANCA, older age and male gender. Factors influencing remission, relapse, renal and overall survival include the type of immunosuppressive therapy used, pattern of organ involvement, presence of ANCA, older age and male gender. Methodological variations between studies highlight the need for a consensus on terminology and definitions for future conduct of clinical studies in AAV.
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              Renal histology in ANCA-associated vasculitis: differences between diagnostic and serologic subgroups.

              Differences in renal histopathology between microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), and between anti-neutrophil cytoplasm autoantibody (ANCA) test results in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis may provide insight into the differences in pathogenesis and raise the opportunity of classifying the vasculitides more accurately. The possible differences in histopathology are investigated in this study. We report an analysis of 173 patients with renal disease in microscopic polyangiitis or Wegener's granulomatosis. A total of 173 renal biopsies, performed at diagnosis, were scored by two observers separately, using a previously standardized protocol. Consensus on each biopsy was achieved during a central review. Normal glomeruli were more common in WG than in MPA (P < 0.001). Glomerulosclerosis was more prominent in MPA than in WG (P=0.003). Interstitial fibrosis (P < 0.001), tubular atrophy (P < 0.001), and tubular casts (P=0.005) were more frequently present and more severe in MPA than in WG. Presence of glomerulosclerosis was more extensive in patients with myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA than with proteinase 3 (PR3)-ANCA (P=0.022). Interstitial fibrosis (P=0.008), tubular necrosis (P=0.030), tubular atrophy (P=0.013), and intra-epithelial infiltrates (P=0.006) were more frequently present and more severe in MPO-ANCA than in PR3-ANCA. Glomerulonephritis in relation to MPA has more characteristics of chronic injury at the time of presentation than glomerulonephritis in relation to WG. This difference may be due to a delayed establishment of diagnosis in patients with MPA compared to patients with WG. Both active and chronic lesions are more abundantly present in MPO-ANCA-positive patients than in patients with PR3-ANCA-positivity, which suggests that the pathogenesis of renal disease in these ANCA subsets could be different. Our results also suggest that ANCA test results may be useful in classifying ANCA-associated vasculitides.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Patholog Res Int
                Patholog Res Int
                PRI
                Pathology Research International
                Hindawi
                2090-8091
                2042-003X
                2018
                3 June 2018
                : 2018
                : 5653612
                Affiliations
                1Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
                2Emergency Care Clinic, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway
                3Department of Pathology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway
                4Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Bergen, Norway
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Maria M. Picken

                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6637-5743
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9517-6871
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4198-5136
                Article
                10.1155/2018/5653612
                6008801
                6bf3c357-6281-417b-ad9e-79e5578b4831
                Copyright © 2018 Rune Bjørneklett et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 7 January 2018
                : 17 March 2018
                : 3 April 2018
                Categories
                Research Article

                Pathology
                Pathology

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