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      Plant-based Remedies with Reference to Respiratory Diseases – A Review

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      The Open Biotechnology Journal
      Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

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          Abstract

          In the era of air pollutants, respiratory diseases are a very common diagnosis in children, adolescents, and adults. Disorders of the respiratory system can affect both upper and lower respiratory system, and cause an immense worldwide health, economical and psychological burden.

          Considerable attention is drawn to the use of plant-based products for the prevention and cure of health challenges, with respect of their eco-friendliness and very few side effects. Exposure to nature and active plant interaction is considered beneficial to physical and mental health. Plant-based drugs primarily target the immune and cardiovascular systems. Biologically active substances with different value can be identified from both terrestrial or marine botanicals, whose therapeutic abilities are an efficient control of an array of diseases.

          In view of the potential of plant agents to positively influence respiratory diseases, this review will provide the reader with recent objective findings in the field of plant therapy and pharmaceutical agents and their ability to alter the physical and psychological complications of airborne diseases.

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          Most cited references117

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          Role of the microbiota in immunity and inflammation.

          The microbiota plays a fundamental role on the induction, training, and function of the host immune system. In return, the immune system has largely evolved as a means to maintain the symbiotic relationship of the host with these highly diverse and evolving microbes. When operating optimally, this immune system-microbiota alliance allows the induction of protective responses to pathogens and the maintenance of regulatory pathways involved in the maintenance of tolerance to innocuous antigens. However, in high-income countries, overuse of antibiotics, changes in diet, and elimination of constitutive partners, such as nematodes, may have selected for a microbiota that lack the resilience and diversity required to establish balanced immune responses. This phenomenon is proposed to account for some of the dramatic rise in autoimmune and inflammatory disorders in parts of the world where our symbiotic relationship with the microbiota has been the most affected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Natural Products as Sources of New Drugs from 1981 to 2014.

            This contribution is a completely updated and expanded version of the four prior analogous reviews that were published in this journal in 1997, 2003, 2007, and 2012. In the case of all approved therapeutic agents, the time frame has been extended to cover the 34 years from January 1, 1981, to December 31, 2014, for all diseases worldwide, and from 1950 (earliest so far identified) to December 2014 for all approved antitumor drugs worldwide. As mentioned in the 2012 review, we have continued to utilize our secondary subdivision of a "natural product mimic", or "NM", to join the original primary divisions and the designation "natural product botanical", or "NB", to cover those botanical "defined mixtures" now recognized as drug entities by the U.S. FDA (and similar organizations). From the data presented in this review, the utilization of natural products and/or their novel structures, in order to discover and develop the final drug entity, is still alive and well. For example, in the area of cancer, over the time frame from around the 1940s to the end of 2014, of the 175 small molecules approved, 131, or 75%, are other than "S" (synthetic), with 85, or 49%, actually being either natural products or directly derived therefrom. In other areas, the influence of natural product structures is quite marked, with, as expected from prior information, the anti-infective area being dependent on natural products and their structures. We wish to draw the attention of readers to the rapidly evolving recognition that a significant number of natural product drugs/leads are actually produced by microbes and/or microbial interactions with the "host from whence it was isolated", and therefore it is considered that this area of natural product research should be expanded significantly.
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              Microbiota regulates immune defense against respiratory tract influenza A virus infection.

              Although commensal bacteria are crucial in maintaining immune homeostasis of the intestine, the role of commensal bacteria in immune responses at other mucosal surfaces remains less clear. Here, we show that commensal microbiota composition critically regulates the generation of virus-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells and antibody responses following respiratory influenza virus infection. By using various antibiotic treatments, we found that neomycin-sensitive bacteria are associated with the induction of productive immune responses in the lung. Local or distal injection of Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands could rescue the immune impairment in the antibiotic-treated mice. Intact microbiota provided signals leading to the expression of mRNA for pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18 at steady state. Following influenza virus infection, inflammasome activation led to migration of dendritic cells (DCs) from the lung to the draining lymph node and T-cell priming. Our results reveal the importance of commensal microbiota in regulating immunity in the respiratory mucosa through the proper activation of inflammasomes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                The Open Biotechnology Journal
                TOBIOTJ
                Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.
                1874-0707
                July 07 2021
                July 07 2021
                : 15
                : 1
                : 46-58
                Article
                10.2174/1874434602015010046
                6c09840b-c161-4b2f-8cbd-326e77169560
                © 2021

                Free to read

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode

                History

                Medicine,Chemistry,Life sciences
                Medicine, Chemistry, Life sciences

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