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      Effects of vildagliptin (Galvus®) therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus after heart transplantation

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          Abstract

          Background

          Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common comorbidity in patients after heart transplantation (HTx) and is associated with adverse long-term outcomes.

          Methods

          The retrospective study reported here analyzed the effects of vildagliptin therapy in stable patients post-HTx with T2DM and compared these with control patients for matched-pairs analysis. A total of 30 stable patients post-HTx with T2DM were included in the study. Fifteen patients (mean age 58.6 ± 6.0 years, mean time post-HTx 4.9 ± 5.3 years, twelve male and three female) were included in the vildagliptin group (VG) and 15 patients were included in the control group (CG) (mean age 61.2 ± 8.3 years, mean time post-HTx 7.2 ± 6.6 years, all male).

          Results

          Mean glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1c) in the VG was 7.4% ± 0.7% before versus 6.8% ± 0.8% after 8 months of vildagliptin therapy ( P = 0.002 vs baseline). In the CG, HbA 1c was 7.0% ± 0.7% versus 7.3% ± 1.2% at follow-up ( P = 0.21). Additionally, there was a significant reduction in mean blood glucose in the VG, from 165.0 ± 18.8 mg/dL to 147.9 ± 22.7 mg/dL ( P = 0.002 vs baseline), whereas mean blood glucose increased slightly in the CG from 154.7 ± 19.7 mg/dL to 162.6 ± 35.0 mg/dL ( P = 0.21). No statistically significant changes in body weight (from 83.3 ± 10.8 kg to 82.0 ± 10.9 kg, P = 0.20), total cholesterol (1.5%, P = 0.68), or triglyceride levels (8.0%, P = 0.65) were seen in the VG. No significant changes in immunosuppressive drug levels or dosages were observed in either group.

          Conclusion

          Vildagliptin therapy significantly reduced HbA 1c and mean blood glucose levels in post-HTx patients in this study with T2DM and did not have any negative effects on lipid profile or body weight. Thus, vildagliptin therapy presented an interesting therapeutic approach for this selected patient cohort.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 reduces glycemia, sustains insulin levels, and reduces glucagon levels in type 2 diabetes.

          The stimulation of insulin vs. inhibition of glucagon secretion in relation to the antidiabetic action of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is not established. Here, the influence of a 4-wk increase in circulating GLP-1 by inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) on 24-h glucose and insulin and glucagon responses to breakfast was studied in subjects with dietary controlled diabetes [age: 65 +/- 8 yr (SD), body mass index: 27.3 +/- 3.3 kg/m(2), fasting plasma glucose: 9.0 +/- 1.3 mmol/liter]. Compared with placebo (n = 19), a specific DPP-4 inhibitor [(1-[[(3-hydroxy-1-adamantyl) amino] acetyl]-2-cyano-(S)-pyrrolidine) (LAF237); 100 mg daily, n = 18] reduced fasting glucose by 0.70 mmol/liter (P = 0.037), 4-h prandial glucose excursion by 1.45 mmol/liter (P < 0.001), and mean 24-h glucose by 0.93 mmol/liter (P < 0.001). Baseline and postprandial active GLP-1 were increased by LAF237. The glucagon response to breakfast was reduced by LAF237 (glucagon levels at 60 min were 88 +/- 8 pg/ml before treatment vs. 77 +/- 5 pg/ml after; P = 0.001). In contrast, the overall insulin levels were not altered. The 4-wk reduction in glucagon correlated with the reduction in 2-h glucose (r = 0.61; P = 0.008). No such association was observed for insulin. Thus, improved metabolic control by DPP-4 inhibition in type 2 diabetes is seen in association with reduced glucagon levels and, despite the lower glycemia, unaltered insulin levels.
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            Effects of vildagliptin on glucose control over 24 weeks in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin.

            We sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vildagliptin, a new dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, added to metformin during 24 weeks of treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes. This was a double-blind, randomized, multicenter, parallel group study of a 24-week treatment with 50 mg vildagliptin daily (n = 177), 100 mg vildagliptin daily (n = 185), or placebo (n = 182) in patients continuing a stable metformin dose regimen (> or =1,500 mg/day) but achieving inadequate glycemic control (A1C 7.5-11%). The between-treatment difference (vildagliptin-placebo) in adjusted mean change (AMDelta) +/- SE in A1C from baseline to end point was -0.7 +/- 0.1% (P < 0.001) and -1.1 +/- 0.1% (P < 0.001) in patients receiving 50 or 100 mg vildagliptin daily, respectively. The between-treatment difference in the AMDelta fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was -0.8 +/- 0.3 mmol/l (P = 0.003) and -1.7 +/- 0.3 mmol/l (P < 0.001) in patients receiving 50 or 100 mg vildagliptin daily, respectively. Adverse events (AEs) were reported by 63.3, 65.0, and 63.5% of patients receiving 50 mg vildagliptin daily, 100 mg vildagliptin daily, or placebo, respectively. Gastrointestinal AEs were reported by 9.6 (P = 0.022 vs. placebo), 14.8, and 18.2% of patients receiving 50 mg vildagliptin daily, 100 mg vildagliptin daily, or placebo, respectively. One patient in each treatment group experienced one mild hypoglycemic event. Vildagliptin is well tolerated and produces clinically meaningful, dose-related decreases in A1C and FPG as add-on therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by metformin.
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              Addition of vildagliptin to insulin improves glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes.

              Type 2 diabetes is difficult to manage in patients with a long history of disease requiring insulin therapy. Moreover, addition of most currently available oral antidiabetic agents increases the risk of hypoglycaemia. Vildagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor, which improves glycaemic control by increasing pancreatic beta cell responsiveness to glucose and suppressing inappropriate glucagon secretion. This study assessed the efficacy and tolerability of vildagliptin added to insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes. This was a multicentre, 24-week, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study in patients with type 2 diabetes that was inadequately controlled (HbA(1c) = 7.5-11%) by insulin. Patients received vildagliptin (n = 144; 50 mg twice daily) or placebo (n = 152) while continuing insulin therapy. Baseline HbA(1c) averaged 8.4 +/- 0.1% in both groups. The adjusted mean change from baseline to endpoint (AMDelta) in HbA(1c) was -0.5 +/- 0.1% and -0.2 +/- 0.1% in patients receiving vildagliptin or placebo, respectively, with a significant between-treatment difference (p = 0.01). In patients aged >/=65 years, the AMDelta HbA(1c) was -0.7 +/- 0.1% in the vildagliptin group vs -0.1 +/- 0.1% in the placebo group (p < 0.001). The incidence of adverse events was similar in the vildagliptin (81.3%) and placebo (82.9%) groups. However, hypoglycaemic events were less common (p < 0.001) and less severe (p < 0.05) in patients receiving vildagliptin than in those receiving placebo. Vildagliptin decreases HbA(1c) in patients whose type 2 diabetes is poorly controlled with high doses of insulin. Addition of vildagliptin to insulin therapy is also associated with reduced confirmed and severe hypoglycaemia. ClinicalTrials.gov ID no.: NCT 00099931.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2013
                08 April 2013
                : 7
                : 297-303
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Cardiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg
                [2 ]Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg
                [3 ]Department of Cardiology, SLK-Kliniken Heilbronn, Bad Friedrichshall, Germany
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Andreas O Doesch Medizinische Klinik III, Kardiologie, Angiologie, Pulmologie, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany Tel +49 6221 5639936 Fax +49 6221 564105 Email andreas.doesch@ 123456med.uni-heidelberg.de
                Article
                dddt-7-297
                10.2147/DDDT.S43092
                3623547
                23630415
                © 2013 Gueler et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Original Research

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