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      Flexible Programs of Chemokine Receptor Expression on Human Polarized T Helper 1 and 2 Lymphocytes

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          Abstract

          Chemokines and their receptors are important elements for the selective attraction of various subsets of leukocytes. To better understand the selective migration of functional subsets of T cells, chemokine receptor expression was analyzed using monoclonal antibodies, RNase protection assays, and the response to distinct chemokines. Naive T cells expressed only CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)4, whereas the majority of memory/activated T cells expressed CXCR3, and a small proportion expressed CC chemokine receptor (CCR)3 and CCR5. When polarized T cell lines were analyzed, CXCR3 was found to be expressed at high levels on T helper cell (Th)0s and Th1s and at low levels on Th2s. In contrast, CCR3 and CCR4 were found on Th2s. This was confirmed by functional responses: only Th2s responded with an increase in [Ca 2+] i to the CCR3 and CCR4 agonists eotaxin and thymus and activation regulated chemokine (TARC), whereas only Th0s and Th1s responded to low concentrations of the CXCR3 agonists IFN-γ–inducible protein 10 (IP-10) and monokine induced by IFN-γ (Mig). Although CCR5 was expressed on both Th1 and Th2 lines, it was absent in several Th2 clones and its expression was markedly influenced by interleukin 2. Chemokine receptor expression and association with Th1 and Th2 phenotypes was affected by other cytokines present during polarization. Transforming growth factor β inhibited CCR3, but enhanced CCR4 and CCR7 expression, whereas interferon α inhibited CCR3 but upregulated CXCR3 and CCR1. These results demonstrate that chemokine receptors are markers of naive and polarized T cell subsets and suggest that flexible programs of chemokine receptor gene expression may control tissue-specific migration of effector T cells.

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          Most cited references 31

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          HIV-1 entry cofactor: functional cDNA cloning of a seven-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptor.

          A cofactor for HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus-type 1) fusion and entry was identified with the use of a novel functional complementary DNA (cDNA) cloning strategy. This protein, designated "fusin," is a putative G protein-coupled receptor with seven transmembrane segments. Recombinant fusin enabled CD4-expressing nonhuman cell types to support HIV-1 Env-mediated cell fusion and HIV-1 infection. Antibodies to fusin blocked cell fusion and infection with normal CD4-positive human target cells. Fusin messenger RNA levels correlated with HIV-1 permissiveness in diverse human cell types. Fusin acted preferentially for T cell line-tropic isolates, in comparison to its activity with macrophagetropic HIV-1 isolates.
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            Lymphocyte homing and homeostasis.

            The integration and control of systemic immune responses depends on the regulated trafficking of lymphocytes. This lymphocyte "homing" process disperses the immunologic repertoire, directs lymphocyte subsets to the specialized microenvironments that control their differentiation and regulate their survival, and targets immune effector cells to sites of antigenic or microbial invasion. Recent advances reveal that the exquisite specificity of lymphocyte homing is determined by combinatorial "decision processes" involving multistep sequential engagement of adhesion and signaling receptors. These homing-related interactions are seamlessly integrated into the overall interaction of the lymphocyte with its environment and participate directly in the control of lymphocyte function, life-span, and population dynamics. In this article a review of the molecular basis of lymphocyte homing is presented, and mechanisms by which homing physiology regulated the homeostasis of immunologic resources are proposed.
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              The beta-chemokine receptors CCR3 and CCR5 facilitate infection by primary HIV-1 isolates.

              We examined the ability of chemokine receptors and related G protein-coupled receptors to facilitate infection by primary, clinical HIV-1 isolates. CCR5, when expressed along with CD4, the HIV-1 receptor, allowed cell lines resistant to most primary HIV-1 isolates to be infected. CCR3 facilitated infection by a more restricted subset of primary viruses, and binding of the CCR3 ligand, eotaxin, inhibited infection by these isolates. Utilization of CCR3 and CCR5 on the target cell depended upon the sequence of the third variable (V3) region of the HIV-1 gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein. The ability of various members of the chemokine receptor family to support the early stages of HIV-1 infection helps to explain viral tropism and beta-chemokine inhibition of primary HIV-1 isolates.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Exp Med
                The Journal of Experimental Medicine
                The Rockefeller University Press
                0022-1007
                1540-9538
                16 March 1998
                : 187
                : 6
                : 875-883
                Affiliations
                From the [* ]Basel Institute for Immunology, CH-4005, Basel, Switzerland; []Leukosite Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142; and [§ ]Millennium Biotherapeutics Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139
                Author notes

                Address correspondence to Federica Sallusto, Basel Institute for Immunology, Grenzacherstrasse 487, CH-4005 Basel, Switzerland. Phone: 41-61-6051348; Fax: 41-61-6051222; E-mail: sallusto@ 123456bii.ch

                Article
                2212187
                9500790
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                Articles

                Medicine

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