Surface treatment by natural or modified polysaccharide polymers is a promising means to fight against implant-associated biofilm infections. The present review focuses on polysaccharide-based coatings that have been proposed over the last ten years to impede biofilm formation on material surfaces exposed to bacterial contamination. Anti-adhesive and bactericidal coatings are considered. Besides classical hydrophilic coatings based on hyaluronic acid and heparin, the promising anti-adhesive properties of the algal polysaccharide ulvan are underlined. Surface functionalization by antimicrobial chitosan and derivatives is extensively surveyed, in particular chitosan association with other polysaccharides in layer-by-layer assemblies to form both anti-adhesive and bactericidal coatings.