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      Mal de Pott en un indígena colombiano Translated title: Pott´s disease in a Colombian indigenous man

      case-report

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          Abstract

          Cada año mueren alrededor de dos millones de personas a causa de la tuberculosis y se estima que un tercio de la población mundial está infectada con el bacilo que la causa, pero solo entre 5 y 10 % desarrolla la enfermedad. El riesgo de que la enfermedad progrese al estado activo depende de factores endógenos y exógenos. Las comunidades indígenas son un grupo con un alto riesgo de infectarse y enfermar de tuberculosis; además de factores como el aislamiento geográfico, el abandono social y cultural y la desnutrición, se han identificado en ellos polimorfismos genéticos que los hacen más propensos a la infección. La tuberculosis vertebral es la forma más destructiva de la enfermedad y representa cerca de la mitad de los casos de tuberculosis esquelética. Se presenta el caso de un paciente indígena colombiano con tuberculosis vertebral y resultado negativo para HIV. El diagnóstico se basó en los hallazgos clínicos y en los estudios de imaginología, y se confirmó mediante la prueba molecular rápida Genotype MTBDR plus ® y de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa PCR IS6110; el cultivo fue negativo a las 16 semanas de incubación. Se discuten brevemente la patogénesis, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento, y se comentan algunos aspectos relacionados con la situación de la tuberculosis en las comunidades indígenas colombianas.

          Translated abstract

          Approximately 2 million people die each year from tuberculosis. One third of the world´s population is estimated to be infected with the tuberculosis bacillus, although only 5-10% will develop the disease in their lifetime. The disease progression risk depends on endogenous and exogenous factors. Indigenous communities are a high-risk group for infection and development of tuberculosis. In addition to factors such as geographical isolation, social and cultural neglect and malnutrition, susceptibility to genetic polymorphisms has been identified in them. Spinal tuberculosis is the most destructive form of the disease, which represents approximately half of all cases of skeletal tuberculosis. The case of an HIV negative, indigenous Colombian man is presented. His diagnosis was done based on clinical and image findings, and it was confirmed with the rapid molecular assay Genotype MTBDRplus ® and IS6110 PCR.The culture in solid media was negative after 16 weeks. We briefly discuss the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment. Finally, we comment on some aspects of the situation of tuberculosis among indigenous Colombian communities.

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          Most cited references37

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          Global tuberculosis report 2014

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            Treatment of tuberculosis and tuberculosis infection in adults and children. American Thoracic Society and The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

            Treatment of Tuberculosis. 1. A 6-mo regimen consisting of isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide given for 2 mo followed by isoniazid and rifampin for 4 mo is the preferred treatment for patients with fully susceptible organisms who adhere to treatment. Ethambutol (or streptomycin in children too young to be monitored for visual acuity) should be included in the initial regimen until the results of drug susceptibility studies are available, unless there is little possibility of drug resistance (i.e., there is less than 4% primary resistance to isoniazid in the community, and the patient has had no previous treatment with antituberculosis medications, is not from a country with a high prevalence of drug resistance, and has no known exposure to a drug-resistant case). This four-drug, 6-mo regimen is effective even when the infecting organism is resistant to INH. This recommendation applies to both HIV-infected and uninfected persons. However, in the presence of HIV infection it is critically important to assess the clinical and bacteriologic response. If there is evidence of a slow or suboptimal response, therapy should be prolonged as judged on a case by case basis. 2. Alternatively, a 9-mo regimen of isoniazid and rifampin is acceptable for persons who cannot or should not take pyrazinamide. Ethambutol (or streptomycin in children too young to be monitored for visual acuity) should also be included until the results of drug susceptibility studies are available, unless there is little possibility of drug resistance (see Section 1 above). If INH resistance is demonstrated, rifampin and ethambutol should be continued for a minimum of 12 mo. 3. Consideration should be given to treating all patients with directly observed therapy (DOT). 4. Multiple-drug-resistant tuberculosis (i.e., resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampin) presents difficult treatment problems. Treatment must be individualized and based on susceptibility studies. In such cases, consultation with an expert in tuberculosis is recommended. 5. Children should be managed in essentially the same ways as adults using appropriately adjusted doses of the drugs. This document addresses specific important differences between the management of adults and children. 6. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis should be managed according to the principles and with the drug regimens outlined for pulmonary tuberculosis, except for children who have miliary tuberculosis, bone/joint tuberculosis, or tuberculous meningitis who should receive a minimum of 12 mo of therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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              Tuberculosis of Spine: Current Views in Diagnosis and Management

              Tuberculosis is the chronic consumptive disease and currently the world's leading cause of death. Tuberculous spondylitis is a less common yet the most dangerous form of skeletal tuberculosis. The recent re-emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) hints at a possible resurgence of tuberculosis in the coming years. This article discusses the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculous spondylitis, and updates material that the author has previously published on the subject. Treatment should be individualized according to different indications which is essential to recovery. A treatment model is suggested on the basis of the author's vast personal experiences.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                bio
                Biomédica
                Biomédica
                Instituto Nacional de Salud (Bogotá )
                0120-4157
                December 2015
                : 35
                : 4
                : 454-461
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Fundación Universitaria Navarra Colombia
                [2 ] Universidad Nacional de Colombia Colombia
                [3 ] Universidad Nacional de Colombia
                Article
                S0120-41572015000400002
                10.7705/biomedica.v35i4.2452
                6c15cfa3-bdaa-4861-97a6-c6b0761eb5de

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                Product

                SciELO Colombia

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0120-4157&lng=en
                Categories
                TROPICAL MEDICINE

                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                Mycobacterium tuberculosis,tuberculosis,tuberculosis, spinal,indigenous population,Colombia,tuberculosis de la columna vertebral,población indígena

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