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Bounds on the possible evolution of the Gravitational Constant from Cosmological Type-Ia Supernovae

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      Abstract

      Recent high-redshift Type Ia supernovae results can be used to set new bounds on a possible variation of the gravitational constant \(G\). If the local value of \(G\) at the space-time location of distant supernovae is different, it would change both the kinetic energy release and the amount of \(^{56}\)Ni synthesized in the supernova outburst. Both effects are related to a change in the Chandrasekhar mass \(M_{Ch} \propto G^{-3/2}\). In addition, the integrated variation of \(G\) with time would also affect the cosmic evolution and therefore the luminosity distance relation. We show that the later effect in the magnitudes of Type Ia supernovae is typically several times smaller than the change produced by the corresponding variation of the Chandrasekhar mass. We investigate in a consistent way how a varying \(G\) could modify the Hubble diagram of Type Ia supernovae and how these results can be used to set upper bounds to a hypothetical variation of \(G\). We find \(G/G_0 \la 1.1\) and \(G'/G \la 10^{-11} yr^{-1}\) at redshifts \(z\simeq 0.5\). These new bounds extend the currently available constrains on the evolution of \(G\) all the way from solar and stellar distances to typical scales of Gpc/Gyr, i.e. by more than 15 orders of magnitudes in time and distance.

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      Measurements of Omega and Lambda from 42 High-Redshift Supernovae

      We report measurements of the mass density, Omega_M, and cosmological-constant energy density, Omega_Lambda, of the universe based on the analysis of 42 Type Ia supernovae discovered by the Supernova Cosmology Project. The magnitude-redshift data for these SNe, at redshifts between 0.18 and 0.83, are fit jointly with a set of SNe from the Calan/Tololo Supernova Survey, at redshifts below 0.1, to yield values for the cosmological parameters. All SN peak magnitudes are standardized using a SN Ia lightcurve width-luminosity relation. The measurement yields a joint probability distribution of the cosmological parameters that is approximated by the relation 0.8 Omega_M - 0.6 Omega_Lambda ~= -0.2 +/- 0.1 in the region of interest (Omega_M 0) = 99%, including the identified systematic uncertainties. The best-fit age of the universe relative to the Hubble time is t_0 = 14.9{+1.4,-1.1} (0.63/h) Gyr for a flat cosmology. The size of our sample allows us to perform a variety of statistical tests to check for possible systematic errors and biases. We find no significant differences in either the host reddening distribution or Malmquist bias between the low-redshift Calan/Tololo sample and our high-redshift sample. The conclusions are robust whether or not a width-luminosity relation is used to standardize the SN peak magnitudes.
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        A modification of the Newtonian dynamics as a possible alternative to the hidden mass hypothesis

         M Milgrom (1983)
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          Quantentheorie und f�nfdimensionale Relativit�tstheorie

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            Author and article information

            Journal
            18 September 2001
            astro-ph/0109299
            10.1103/PhysRevD.65.023506
            Custom metadata
            Phys.Rev. D65 (2002) 023506
            9 pages, 4 figures, Phys. Rev. D. in press
            astro-ph gr-qc

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