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      Aortic dissection

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          Abstract

          Aortic dissection is a life-threatening condition caused by a tear in the intimal layer of the aorta or bleeding within the aortic wall, resulting in the separation (dissection) of the layers of the aortic wall. Aortic dissection is most common in those 65-75 years of age, with an incidence of 35 cases per 100,000 people per year in this population. Other risk factors include hypertension, dyslipidaemia and genetic disorders that involve the connective tissue, such as Marfan syndrome. Swift diagnostic confirmation and adequate treatment are crucial in managing affected patients. Contemporary management is multidisciplinary and includes serial non-invasive imaging, biomarker testing and genetic risk profiling for aortopathy. The choice of approach for repairing or replacing the damaged region of the aorta depends on the severity and the location of the dissection and the risks of complication from surgery. Open surgical repair is most commonly used for dissections involving the ascending aorta and the aortic arch, whereas minimally invasive endovascular intervention is appropriate for descending aorta dissections that are complicated by rupture, malperfusion, ongoing pain, hypotension or imaging features of high risk. Recent advances in the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of aortic dissection have led to more patients being considered at substantial risk of complications and, therefore, in need of endovascular intervention rather than only medical or surgical intervention.

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          Most cited references124

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          2014 ESC Guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of aortic diseases: Document covering acute and chronic aortic diseases of the thoracic and abdominal aorta of the adult. The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Aortic Diseases of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).

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            Presentation, Diagnosis, and Outcomes of Acute Aortic Dissection: 17-Year Trends From the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection.

            Diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of acute aortic dissection (AAS) are changing.
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              Incidence of aortic complications in patients with bicuspid aortic valves.

              Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), the most common congenital heart defect, has been thought to cause frequent and severe aortic complications; however, long-term, population-based data are lacking. To determine the incidence of aortic complications in patients with BAV in a community cohort and in the general population. In this retrospective cohort study, we conducted comprehensive assessment of aortic complications of patients with BAV living in a population-based setting in Olmsted County, Minnesota. We analyzed long-term follow-up of a cohort of all Olmsted County residents diagnosed with definite BAV by echocardiography from 1980 to 1999 and searched for aortic complications of patients whose bicuspid valves had gone undiagnosed. The last year of follow-up was 2008-2009. Thoracic aortic dissection, ascending aortic aneurysm, and aortic surgery. The cohort included 416 consecutive patients with definite BAV diagnosed by echocardiography, mean (SD) follow-up of 16 (7) years (6530 patient-years). Aortic dissection occurred in 2 of 416 patients; incidence of 3.1 (95% CI, 0.5-9.5) cases per 10,000 patient-years, age-adjusted relative-risk 8.4 (95% CI, 2.1-33.5; P = .003) compared with the county's general population. Aortic dissection incidences for patients 50 years or older at baseline and bearers of aortic aneurysms at baseline were 17.4 (95% CI, 2.9-53.6) and 44.9 (95% CI, 7.5-138.5) cases per 10,000 patient-years, respectively. Comprehensive search for aortic dissections in undiagnosed bicuspid valves revealed 2 additional patients, allowing estimation of aortic dissection incidence in bicuspid valve patients irrespective of diagnosis status (1.5; 95% CI, 0.4-3.8 cases per 10,000 patient-years), which was similar to the diagnosed cohort. Of 384 patients without baseline aneurysms, 49 developed aneurysms at follow-up, incidence of 84.9 (95% CI, 63.3-110.9) cases per 10,000 patient-years and an age-adjusted relative risk 86.2 (95% CI, 65.1-114; P <.001 compared with the general population). The 25-year rate of aortic surgery was 25% (95% CI, 17.2%-32.8%). In the population of patients with BAV, the incidence of aortic dissection over a mean of 16 years of follow-up was low but significantly higher than in the general population.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Disease Primers
                Nat Rev Dis Primers
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                2056-676X
                December 22 2016
                July 21 2016
                December 22 2016
                : 2
                : 1
                Article
                10.1038/nrdp.2016.53
                27440162
                6c22db41-03ab-4d18-8766-139d8ef92751
                © 2016

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