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      The Diagnosis and Treatment of Elderly Patients with Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Chronic Bronchitis

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          Abstract

          The syndrome of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) consists of chronic bronchitis (CB), bronchiectasis, emphysema, and reversible airway disease that combine uniquely in an individual patient. Older patients are at risk for COPD and its components—emphysema, CB, and bronchiectasis. Bacterial and viral infections play a role in acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) and in acute exacerbations of CB (AECB) without features of COPD. Older patients are at risk for resistant bacterial organisms during their episodes of AECOPD and AECB. Organisms include the more‐common bacteria implicated in AECOPD/AECB such as Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Less‐common nonenteric, gram‐negative organisms including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, gram‐positive organisms including Staphylococcus aureus, and strains of nontuberculosis Mycobacteria are more often seen in AECOPD/AECB episodes involving elderly patients with frequent episodes of CB or those with bronchiectasis. Risk‐stratified antibiotic treatment guidelines appear useful for purulent episodes of AECOPD and episodes of AECB. These guidelines have not been prospectively validated for the general population and especially not for the elderly population. Using a risk‐stratification approach for elderly patients, first‐line antibiotics (e.g., amoxicillin, ampicillin, pivampicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and doxycycline), with a more‐limited spectrum of antibacterial coverage, are used in patients who are likely to have a low probability of resistant organisms during AECOPD/AECB. Second‐line antibiotics (e.g., amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, second‐ or third‐generation cephalosporins, and respiratory fluoroquinolones) with a broader spectrum of coverage are reserved for patients with significant risk factors for resistant organisms and those who have failed initial antibiotic treatment.

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          Most cited references 66

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          New strains of bacteria and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

          The role of bacterial pathogens in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is controversial. In older studies, the rates of isolation of bacterial pathogens from sputum were the same during acute exacerbations and during stable disease. However, these studies did not differentiate among strains within a bacterial species and therefore could not detect changes in strains over time. We hypothesized that the acquisition of a new strain of a pathogenic bacterial species is associated with exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We conducted a prospective study in which clinical information and sputum samples for culture were collected monthly and during exacerbations from 81 outpatients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Molecular typing of sputum isolates of nonencapsulated Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was performed. Over a period of 56 months, the 81 patients made a total of 1975 clinic visits, 374 of which were made during exacerbations (mean, 2.1 per patient per year). On the basis of molecular typing, an exacerbation was diagnosed at 33.0 percent of the clinic visits that involved isolation of a new strain of a bacterial pathogen, as compared with 15.4 percent of visits at which no new strain was isolated (P<0.001; relative risk of an exacerbation, 2.15; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.83 to 2.53). Isolation of a new strain of H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, or S. pneumoniae was associated with a significantly increased risk of an exacerbation. The association between an exacerbation and the isolation of a new strain of a bacterial pathogen supports the causative role of bacteria in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Copyright 2002 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            The worldwide emergence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance.

            Fluoroquinolone resistance is emerging in gram-negative pathogens worldwide. The traditional understanding that quinolone resistance is acquired only through mutation and transmitted only vertically does not entirely account for the relative ease with which resistance develops in exquisitely susceptible organisms, or for the very strong association between resistance to quinolones and to other agents. The recent discovery of plasmid-mediated horizontally transferable genes encoding quinolone resistance might shed light on these phenomena. The Qnr proteins, capable of protecting DNA gyrase from quinolones, have homologues in water-dwelling bacteria, and seem to have been in circulation for some time, having achieved global distribution in a variety of plasmid environments and bacterial genera. AAC(6')-Ib-cr, a variant aminoglycoside acetyltransferase capable of modifying ciprofloxacin and reducing its activity, seems to have emerged more recently, but might be even more prevalent than the Qnr proteins. Both mechanisms provide low-level quinolone resistance that facilitates the emergence of higher-level resistance in the presence of quinolones at therapeutic levels. Much remains to be understood about these genes, but their insidious promotion of substantial resistance, their horizontal spread, and their co-selection with other resistance elements indicate that a more cautious approach to quinolone use and a reconsideration of clinical breakpoints are needed.
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              The pathology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

              The pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is based on the innate and adaptive inflammatory immune response to the inhalation of toxic particles and gases. Although tobacco smoking is the primary cause of this inhalation injury, many other environmental and occupational exposures contribute to the pathology of COPD. The immune inflammatory changes associated with COPD are linked to a tissue-repair and -remodeling process that increases mucus production and causes emphysematous destruction of the gas-exchanging surface of the lung. The common form of emphysema observed in smokers begins in the respiratory bronchioles near the thickened and narrowed small bronchioles that become the major site of obstruction in COPD. The mechanism(s) that allow small airways to thicken in such close proximity to lung tissue undergoing emphysematous destruction remains a puzzle that needs to be solved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Am Geriatr Soc
                J Am Geriatr Soc
                10.1111/(ISSN)1532-5415
                JGS
                Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
                Blackwell Publishing Inc (Malden, USA )
                0002-8614
                1532-5415
                11 March 2010
                March 2010
                : 58
                : 3 ( doiID: 10.1111/jgs.2010.58.issue-3 )
                : 570-579
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ]Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, School of Medicine University of California at Davis, Sacramento, California
                [ 2 ]Veterans Affairs Northern California Health Care System, Mather, California.
                Author notes
                Address correspondence to Timothy E. Albertson, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, UC Davis School of Medicine and VA Northern California Health Care System, CA. E‐mail: tealbertson@ 123456ucdavis.edu
                Article
                JGS2741 2741
                10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.02741.x
                7166863
                20398122
                © 2010, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2010, The American Geriatrics Society

                This article is being made freely available through PubMed Central as part of the COVID-19 public health emergency response. It can be used for unrestricted research re-use and analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source, for the duration of the public health emergency.

                Page count
                links-crossref: 148, Figures: 0, Tables: 5, Equations: 0, References: 76, Pages: 10, Words: 9023
                Product
                Categories
                Progress in Geriatrics
                Progress in Geriatrics
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                March 2010
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:5.8.0 mode:remove_FC converted:15.04.2020

                Geriatric medicine

                bronchiectasis, antibiotics, elderly patients, copd, aecb, bronchitis

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