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A Semi-distributed Model for Predicting Faecal Coliform in Urban Stormwater by Integrating SWMM and MOPUS

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      The microbial contamination of urban stormwater has an important impact on human health and stormwater reuse. This study develops an exploratory semi-distributed model, MOPUS_S, which can simulate faecal coliform levels in separate sewer systems in urban catchments. The MOPUS_S was built by coupling the SWMM model and the microbial MOPUS model. The parameters associated with the deposition and wash-off of microorganisms were more influential than those related to microorganism survival processes. Compared to other existing bacterial models, MOPUS_S showed comparable performance in predicting faecal coliform concentrations. The performance varied largely between rainfall events, with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) values ranging from −5.03 to 0.39 and R 2 ranging from −0.02 to 0.83, respectively. The model simulation results for low and medium concentrations were better than those for the peak concentrations. Poor simulation results of peak concentrations obviously affect the overall model performance. In general, MOPUS_S could be capable of predicting the faecal coliform load in urban catchments and be a useful tool for urban stormwater management planning.

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      Most cited references 36

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        Review of Urban Stormwater Quality Models: Deterministic, Stochastic, and Hybrid Approaches1

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          Molecular quantitative analysis of human viruses in California stormwater.

          Many human pathogenic viruses are transmitted via the oral-fecal route and water is one possible vector, representing a risk for public health. Sixty-one large-volume water samples from storm drains in California were processed by a two-step hollow fiber ultrafiltration procedure followed by molecular analysis for human enterovirus and adenovirus types. Each sample was spiked with a surrogate, the benign bacteriophage PP7. Both surrogate and human viruses were quantified by newly designed TaqMan PCR assays. Equations were developed that account for the main variables in the procedure: recovery of the ultrafiltration, efficiency of nucleic acid extraction, and effect of inhibitors on the amplification of viral targets. Adenovirus 40/41 was detected in one sample at 230 genomes per liter, and no other adenovirus or enterovirus types were found. Samples that resulted in nondetects are reported together with the corresponding sample-specific limit of detection (S(LOD)), a useful tool when estimating the public health risk associated with the contact or ingestion of water. Virus concentrations did not correlate with traditional viable indicator concentrations or any of the physicochemical parameters measured. In contrast, coliform concentrations were correlated with total suspended solids. To our knowledge, this is the first study where all factors known to influence limits of detection have been investigated and integrated into equations that are widely applicable to the quantification of viruses or other microbial targets by PCR.

            Author and article information

            [1 ]State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China; houxiaoshu_84@ (X.H.); chenlei1982bnu@ (L.C.)
            [2 ]Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; qjl@ (J.Q.); zhangyali@ (Y.Z.)
            Author notes
            [* ]Correspondence: zyshen@ ; Tel.: +86-10-5880-4733
            Int J Environ Res Public Health
            Int J Environ Res Public Health
            International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
            08 March 2019
            March 2019
            : 16
            : 5
            30857172 6427517 10.3390/ijerph16050847 ijerph-16-00847
            © 2019 by the authors.

            Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (


            Public health

            faecal coliform, swmm, mopus, semi-distributed, microorganism modelling


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