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      Sex chromosome differentiation in Humulus japonicus Siebold & Zuccarini, 1846 (Cannabaceae) revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization of subtelomeric repeat


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          Humulus japonicus Siebold et Zucc (Japanese hop) is a dioecious species of the family Cannabaceae. The chromosome number is 2n = 16 = 14 + XX for females and 2n = 17 = 14 + XY1Y2 for male. To date, no fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) markers have been established for the identification of Humulus japonicus sex chromosomes. In this paper, we report a method for the mitotic and meiotic sex chromosome differentiation in Humulus japonicus by FISH for HJSR, a high copy subtelomeric repeat. The signal is present in the subtelomeric region of one arm of the X chromosome. We demonstrate that males have two Y chromosomes that differ in FISH signal with the HJSR probe. Indeed, the HJSR probe hybridizes to a subtelomeric region on both arms of chromosome Y1 but not of chromosome Y2. The orientation and position of pseudoautosomal regions (PAR1 and PAR2) were also determined.

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          Sex chromosomes in land plants.

          Sex chromosomes in land plants can evolve as a consequence of close linkage between the two sex determination genes with complementary dominance required to establish stable dioecious populations, and they are found in at least 48 species across 20 families. The sex chromosomes in hepatics, mosses, and gymnosperms are morphologically heteromorphic. In angiosperms, heteromorphic sex chromosomes are found in at least 19 species from 4 families, while homomorphic sex chromosomes occur in 20 species from 13 families. The prevalence of the XY system found in 44 out of 48 species may reflect the predominance of the evolutionary pathway from gynodioecy towards dioecy. All dioecious species have the potential to evolve sex chromosomes, and reversions back from dioecy to various forms of monoecy, gynodioecy, or androdioecy have also occurred. Such reversals may occur especially during the early stages of sex chromosome evolution before the lethality of the YY (or WW) genotype is established.
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            Sex chromosomes in flowering plants.

            Sex chromosomes in dioecious and polygamous plants evolved as a mechanism for ensuring outcrossing to increase genetic variation in the offspring. Sex specificity has evolved in 75% of plant families by male sterile or female sterile mutations, but well-defined heteromorphic sex chromosomes are known in only four plant families. A pivotal event in sex chromosome evolution, suppression of recombination at the sex determination locus and its neighboring regions, might be lacking in most dioecious species. However, once recombination is suppressed around the sex determination region, an incipient Y chromosome starts to differentiate by accumulating deleterious mutations, transposable element insertions, chromosomal rearrangements, and selection for male-specific alleles. Some plant species have recently evolved homomorphic sex chromosomes near the inception of this evolutionary process, while a few other species have sufficiently diverged heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Comparative analysis of carefully selected plant species together with some fish species promises new insights into the origins of sex chromosomes and the selective forces driving their evolution.
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                Author and article information

                Comp Cytogenet
                Comp Cytogenet
                Comparative Cytogenetics
                Pensoft Publishers
                10 July 2012
                : 6
                : 3
                : 239-247
                [1 ]Centre for Molecular Biotechnology, Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy, Moscow 127550, Timiryazevskaya Street, 49, Russia
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Gennady Karlov ( karlovg@ 123456gmail.com )

                Academic editor: Lorenzo Peruzzi

                Oleg S. Alexandrov, Mikhail G. Divashuk, Nikolay A. Yakovin, Gennady I. Karlov

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 (CC-BY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                : 20 April 2012
                : 27 June 2012

                humulus japonicus,sex chromosomes,sex determination in plants,subtelomeric repeat,fluorescence in situ hybridization


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