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      Causes and Consequences of Metabolic Acidosis in Patients after Kidney Transplantation

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          Abstract

          Background: Metabolic acidosis (MA) is a common complication in kidney transplantation (KTx). It is more prevalent in KTx than in CKD, and it occurs at higher glomerular filtration rates. The pathophysiologic understanding of MA in KTx and its clinical impact has been highlighted by few recent studies. However, no guidelines exist yet for the treatment of MA after KTx. Summary: MA in KTx seems to share pathophysiologic mechanisms with CKD, such as impaired ammoniagenesis. Additional kidney transplant-specific factors seem to alter not only the prevalence but also the phenotype of MA, which typically shows features of renal tubular acidosis. There is evidence that calcineurin inhibitors, immunological factors, process of donation, donor characteristics, and diet may contribute to MA occurrence. According to several mainly observational studies, MA seems to play a role in disturbed bone metabolism, cardiovascular morbidity, declining graft function, and mortality. A better understanding of the pathophysiology and evidence from randomized controlled trials, in particular, are needed to clarify the role of MA and the potential benefit of alkali treatment in KTx. Alkali therapy might not only be beneficial but also cost effective and safe. Key Messages: MA seems to be associated with several negative outcomes in KTx. A deeper understanding of the pathophysiology and clinical consequences of MA in KTx is crucial. Clinical trials will have to determine the potential benefits of alkali therapy.

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          Most cited references 64

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          Bicarbonate supplementation slows progression of CKD and improves nutritional status.

          Bicarbonate supplementation preserves renal function in experimental chronic kidney disease (CKD), but whether the same benefit occurs in humans is unknown. Here, we randomly assigned 134 adult patients with CKD (creatinine clearance [CrCl] 15 to 30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) and serum bicarbonate 16 to 20 mmol/L to either supplementation with oral sodium bicarbonate or standard care for 2 yr. The primary end points were rate of CrCl decline, the proportion of patients with rapid decline of CrCl (>3 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)/yr), and ESRD (CrCl <10 ml/min). Secondary end points were dietary protein intake, normalized protein nitrogen appearance, serum albumin, and mid-arm muscle circumference. Compared with the control group, decline in CrCl was slower with bicarbonate supplementation (5.93 versus 1.88 ml/min 1.73 m(2); P < 0.0001). Patients supplemented with bicarbonate were significantly less likely to experience rapid progression (9 versus 45%; relative risk 0.15; 95% confidence interval 0.06 to 0.40; P < 0.0001). Similarly, fewer patients supplemented with bicarbonate developed ESRD (6.5 versus 33%; relative risk 0.13; 95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.40; P < 0.001). Nutritional parameters improved significantly with bicarbonate supplementation, which was well tolerated. This study demonstrates that bicarbonate supplementation slows the rate of progression of renal failure to ESRD and improves nutritional status among patients with CKD.
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            Daily oral sodium bicarbonate preserves glomerular filtration rate by slowing its decline in early hypertensive nephropathy.

            In most patients with hypertensive nephropathy and low glomerular filtration rate (GFR), the kidney function progressively declines despite the adequate control of the hypertension with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition. Previously we found that 2 years of oral sodium citrate slowed GFR decline in patients whose estimated GFR (eGFR) was very low (mean 33 ml/min). This treatment also slowed GFR decline in an animal model of surgically reduced nephron mass. Here, we tested if daily oral sodium bicarbonate slowed GFR decline in patients with hypertensive nephropathy with reduced but relatively preserved eGFR (mean 75 ml/min) in a 5-year, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, and blinded interventional study. Patients matched for age, ethnicity, albuminuria, and eGFR received daily placebo or equimolar sodium chloride or bicarbonate while maintaining antihypertensive regimens (including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition) aiming for their recommended blood pressure targets. After 5 years, the rate of eGFR decline, estimated using plasma cystatin C, was slower and eGFR was higher in patients given sodium bicarbonate than in those given placebo or sodium chloride. Thus, our study shows that in hypertensive nephropathy, daily sodium bicarbonate is an effective kidney protective adjunct to blood pressure control along with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition.
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              Amelioration of metabolic acidosis in patients with low GFR reduced kidney endothelin production and kidney injury, and better preserved GFR.

              Metabolic acidosis often accompanies low glomerular filtration rate and induces secretion of endothelin, which in turn might mediate kidney injury. Here we tested whether treatment of metabolic acidosis in patients with low glomerular filtration rate reduced the progression of kidney disease. Fifty-nine patients with hypertensive nephropathy and metabolic acidosis had their blood pressure reduced with regimens that included angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition. Thirty patients were then prescribed sodium citrate, and the remaining 29, unable or unwilling to take sodium citrate, served as controls. All were followed for 24 months with maintenance of their blood pressure reduction. Urine endothelin-1 excretion, a surrogate of kidney endothelin production, and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, a marker of kidney tubulointerstitial injury, were each significantly lower, while the rate of estimated glomerular filtration rate decline was significantly slower. The estimated glomerular filtration rate was statistically higher after 24 months of sodium citrate treatment compared to the control group. Hence it appears that sodium citrate is an effective kidney-protective adjunct to blood pressure reduction and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2020
                December 2020
                09 October 2020
                : 45
                : 6
                : 792-801
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Nephrology, University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
                bPraxis und Dialysezentrum Zürich-City, Zurich, Switzerland
                Author notes
                *Nilufar Mohebbi, Division of Nephrology, University Hospital Zurich, Rämistrasse 100, CH – 8091 Zurich (Switzerland), nilufar.mohebbi@usz.ch
                Article
                510158 Kidney Blood Press Res 2020;45:792–801
                10.1159/000510158
                33040055
                © 2020 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY). Usage, derivative works and distribution are permitted provided that proper credit is given to the author and the original publisher.Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 1, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Review Article

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