Fabry disease (FD) is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the galactosidase A (GLA) gene that result in deficiency of α-GLA activity, leading to major organ failure and premature mortality. According to different disease courses, FD can be divided into classical and nonclassical phenotypes. The nonclassical FD phenotype is always absent of characteristic symptoms, which makes identifying it challenging. This article presents a 49-year-old man with a 10-year history of proteinuria and decreased glomerular filtration rate. An electrocardiogram showed a complete right bundle branch block and abnormal Q waves in high lateral, accompanied by dramatically elevated ST segment. Consequently, a renal biopsy was performed. Vacuolation was found in many podocytes in light microscopic examinations. Similarly, a myelin-like structure was detected by electron microscopy. Pathological findings were most consistent with FD. Consequently, genetic analysis, p.R301Q (c.902G>A [p.Arg301Gln]), confirmed the FD diagnosis. Angiotensin receptor blocker and traditional Chinese medicine, but not enzyme replacement therapy, were prescribed due to financial constraints. The patient had stabilization of kidney disease 6 months later. The case showed that renal biopsy should be performed in patients with cardiac and renal symptoms, which could contribute toward the correct diagnosis for nonclassical FD type.