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      A Case of a 49-Year-Old Man with Nonclassical Fabry Disease Diagnosed by Renal Biopsy

      , , , ,
      S. Karger AG
      Fabry disease, Chronic renal disease, Proteinuria, Renal biopsy

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          Fabry disease (FD) is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the galactosidase A (GLA) gene that result in deficiency of α-GLA activity, leading to major organ failure and premature mortality. According to different disease courses, FD can be divided into classical and nonclassical phenotypes. The nonclassical FD phenotype is always absent of characteristic symptoms, which makes identifying it challenging. This article presents a 49-year-old man with a 10-year history of proteinuria and decreased glomerular filtration rate. An electrocardiogram showed a complete right bundle branch block and abnormal Q waves in high lateral, accompanied by dramatically elevated ST segment. Consequently, a renal biopsy was performed. Vacuolation was found in many podocytes in light microscopic examinations. Similarly, a myelin-like structure was detected by electron microscopy. Pathological findings were most consistent with FD. Consequently, genetic analysis, p.R301Q (c.902G>A [p.Arg301Gln]), confirmed the FD diagnosis. Angiotensin receptor blocker and traditional Chinese medicine, but not enzyme replacement therapy, were prescribed due to financial constraints. The patient had stabilization of kidney disease 6 months later. The case showed that renal biopsy should be performed in patients with cardiac and renal symptoms, which could contribute toward the correct diagnosis for nonclassical FD type.

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          Early Biomarkers of Fabry Nephropathy: A Review of the Literature

          Progressive nephropathy is one of the main features of Fabry disease. Although some clinical signs of Fabry nephropathy are already present in childhood, patients are often diagnosed relatively late in the course of the disease due to the absence of specific clinical markers, while a timely diagnosis and the prompt start of enzyme replacement therapy may be beneficial in stabilizing renal function or slowing its decline. Proteinuria/albuminuria has been accepted as the most important marker for Fabry nephropathy; however, a large proportion of renal impairment occurs in nonalbuminuric state. Therefore, early biomarkers may be useful for early identification of kidney involvement. The aim of this article is to review the current available literature on all biomarkers of Fabry nephropathy, with a comprehensive and critical description of their utilization in early recognition of renal damage.
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            Is Open Access

            Results of Fabry Disease Screening in Male Pre-End Stage Renal Disease Patients with Unknown Etiology Found Through the Platform of a Chronic Kidney Disease Education Program in a Northern Taiwan Medical Center

            Background/Aims: Fabry disease (FD), a rare x-lined genetic disorder is a cause of renal deterioration. The phenotype of FD is highly variable and nonspecific, and correct diagnosis has always been delayed. We aimed to explore the prevalence and clinical presentation of FD in this high-risk male population in a Northern Taiwan medical center. Methods: This is the first study to survey the incidence of FD in this high-risk population through the platform of a chronic kidney disease (CKD) education program in Asia. A total of 1,012 male patients with unknown CKD causes were screened using an assay of alpha-galactosidase A activity (α-Gal A) by dried blood spots (DBS). A final GLA gene analysis was also done for those with low enzyme activity. Results: We identified two new patients with classic FD and four patients with late-onset FD. One novel GLA mutation with c.413 G>A was found in one classic FD patient (index 5). The prevalence of FD is about 0.59 % (6 in 1,012) in the high-risk population group with CKD. The clinical symptoms of FD patients are nonspecific except in those with various degrees of renal failure. Those patients’ correct diagnosis was delayed, taking years and even decades. Three patients received enzyme replacement therapy and one started regular hemodialysis due to persistent renal function deterioration. Another two patients were found from family screening through a new index. In addition, a false negative result occurred in one patient who was proved to have FD by his kidney pathology as determined by this screening. Conclusion: FD is not such as rare a disease and its prevalence is greater in this high-risk male population. Clinicians need to be aware that FD should be included in the differential diagnosis in CKD with unknown etiology.
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              X-chromosome inactivation in female patients with Fabry disease


                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                January 2022
                14 September 2021
                : 146
                : 1
                : 45-48
                Department of Nephrology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University (Zhejiang Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine), Hangzhou, China
                516924 Nephron 2022;146:45–48
                © 2021 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 08 February 2021
                : 24 April 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Pages: 4
                Clinical Practice: Case Report

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                Fabry disease,Chronic renal disease,Proteinuria,Renal biopsy
                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology
                Fabry disease, Chronic renal disease, Proteinuria, Renal biopsy


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