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      Genetic Analysis of Short Stature

      a , b , a

      Hormone Research in Paediatrics

      S. Karger AG

      Genes, Genetics, Short stature, Growth

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          Abstract

          Short stature is a major concern for patients and their parents, and represents a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. A correct diagnosis is of particular importance in view of the availability of effective, but costly, therapy in a small subset of cases. Many different genetic etiologies of short stature are known. Therefore, chromosome as well as molecular analysis are requisite diagnostic investigations in children with short stature. Particularly in the group of children with idiopathic short stature, possibilities of molecular analysis are often underestimated. Important options are UPD7 and the FGFR3, SHOX, GH1 and GHR genes. Furthermore, analysis of the IGF and IGF1R genes should be considered. We propose a flow chart for molecular analysis in short stature.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Intrauterine growth retardation and postnatal growth failure associated with deletion of the insulin-like growth factor I gene.

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            Mutations in LHX3 result in a new syndrome revealed by combined pituitary hormone deficiency.

            Combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) has been linked with rare abnormalities in genes encoding transcription factors necessary for pituitary development. We have isolated LHX3, a gene involved in a new syndrome, using a candidate-gene approach developed on the basis of documented pituitary abnormalities of a recessive lethal mutation in mice generated by targeted disruption of Lhx3 (ref. 2). LHX3, encoding a member of the LIM class of homeodomain proteins, consists of at least six exons located at 9q34. We identified a homozygous LHX3 defect in patients of two unrelated consanguineous families displaying a complete deficit in all but one (adrenocorticotropin) anterior pituitary hormone and a rigid cervical spine leading to limited head rotation. Two of these patients also displayed a severe pituitary hypoplasia, whereas one patient presented secondarily with an enlarged anterior pituitary. These LHX3 mutations consist of a missense mutation (Y116C) in the LIM2 domain at a phylogenetically conserved residue and an intragenic deletion predicting a severely truncated protein lacking the entire homeodomain. These data are consistent with function of LHX3 in the proper development of all anterior pituitary cell types, except corticotropes, and extrapituitary structures.
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              Distinct missense mutations of the FGFR3 lys650 codon modulate receptor kinase activation and the severity of the skeletal dysplasia phenotype.

              The fibroblast growth factor-receptor 3 (FGFR3) Lys650 codon is located within a critical region of the tyrosine kinase-domain activation loop. Two missense mutations in this codon are known to result in strong constitutive activation of the FGFR3 tyrosine kinase and cause three different skeletal dysplasia syndromes-thanatophoric dysplasia type II (TD2) (A1948G [Lys650Glu]) and SADDAN (severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans) syndrome and thanatophoric dysplasia type I (TD1) (both due to A1949T [Lys650Met]). Other mutations within the FGFR3 tyrosine kinase domain (e.g., C1620A or C1620G [both resulting in Asn540Lys]) are known to cause hypochondroplasia, a relatively common but milder skeletal dysplasia. In 90 individuals with suspected clinical diagnoses of hypochondroplasia who do not have Asn540Lys mutations, we screened for mutations, in FGFR3 exon 15, that would disrupt a unique BbsI restriction site that includes the Lys650 codon. We report here the discovery of three novel mutations (G1950T and G1950C [both resulting in Lys650Asn] and A1948C [Lys650Gln]) occurring in six individuals from five families. Several physical and radiological features of these individuals were significantly milder than those in individuals with the Asn540Lys mutations. The Lys650Asn/Gln mutations result in constitutive activation of the FGFR3 tyrosine kinase but to a lesser degree than that observed with the Lys540Glu and Lys650Met mutations. These results demonstrate that different amino acid substitutions at the FGFR3 Lys650 codon can result in several different skeletal dysplasia phenotypes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2003
                2003
                15 October 2003
                : 60
                : 4
                : 157-165
                Affiliations
                aCHCG Department of Clinical Genetics, and bDepartment of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
                Article
                73226 Horm Res 2003;60:157–165
                10.1159/000073226
                14530602
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, References: 66, Pages: 9
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