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      Characteristics, Management, and Outcomes of Community-Acquired Pneumonia due to Respiratory Syncytial Virus: A Retrospective Study


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          Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a well-known cause of bronchiolitis in children, can cause community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults, but this condition is not well studied. Hence, we described the characteristics and outcomes of patients hospitalized for CAP due to RSV.


          This was a retrospective study of patients admitted to a tertiary-care hospital between 2016 and 2019 with CAP due to RSV diagnosed by a respiratory multiplex PCR within 48 hours of admission. We compared patients who required ICU admission to those who did not.


          Eighty adult patients were hospitalized with CAP due to RSV (median age 69.0 years, hypertension 65.0%, diabetes 58.8%, chronic respiratory disease 52.5%, and immunosuppression 17.5%); 19 (23.8%) patients required ICU admission. The median pneumonia severity index score was 120.5 (140.0 for ICU and 102.0 for non-ICU patients; p = 0.09). Bacterial coinfection was rare (10.0%). Patients who required ICU admission had more hypotension (systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg) and a higher prevalence of bilateral infiltrates on chest X-ray (CXR) (89.5% versus 32.7%; p < 0.001). Systemic corticosteroids were used in 57.3% of patients (median initial dose was 40 mg of prednisone equivalent) with ICU patients receiving a higher dose compared to non-ICU patients ( p = 0.02). Most (68.4%) ICU patients received mechanical ventilation (median duration of 4 days). The overall hospital mortality was 8.8% (higher for ICU patients: 31.6% versus 1.6%, p < 0.001).


          Most patients with CAP due to RSV were elderly and had significant comorbidities. ICU admission was required in almost one in four patients and was associated with higher mortality.

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          Global burden of acute lower respiratory infections due to respiratory syncytial virus in young children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

          Summary Background The global burden of disease attributable to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) remains unknown. We aimed to estimate the global incidence of and mortality from episodes of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) due to RSV in children younger than 5 years in 2005. Methods We estimated the incidence of RSV-associated ALRI in children younger than 5 years, stratified by age, using data from a systematic review of studies published between January, 1995, and June, 2009, and ten unpublished population-based studies. We estimated possible boundaries for RSV-associated ALRI mortality by combining case fatality ratios with incidence estimates from hospital-based reports from published and unpublished studies and identifying studies with population-based data for RSV seasonality and monthly ALRI mortality. Findings In 2005, an estimated 33·8 (95% CI 19·3–46·2) million new episodes of RSV-associated ALRI occurred worldwide in children younger than 5 years (22% of ALRI episodes), with at least 3·4 (2·8–4·3) million episodes representing severe RSV-associated ALRI necessitating hospital admission. We estimated that 66 000–199 000 children younger than 5 years died from RSV-associated ALRI in 2005, with 99% of these deaths occurring in developing countries. Incidence and mortality can vary substantially from year to year in any one setting. Interpretation Globally, RSV is the most common cause of childhood ALRI and a major cause of admission to hospital as a result of severe ALRI. Mortality data suggest that RSV is an important cause of death in childhood from ALRI, after pneumococcal pneumonia and Haemophilus influenzae type b. The development of novel prevention and treatment strategies should be accelerated as a priority. Funding WHO; Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
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            A prediction rule to identify low-risk patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

            There is considerable variability in rates of hospitalization of patients with community-acquired pneumonia, in part because of physicians' uncertainty in assessing the severity of illness at presentation. From our analysis of data on 14,199 adult inpatients with community-acquired pneumonia, we derived a prediction rule that stratifies patients into five classes with respect to the risk of death within 30 days. The rule was validated with 1991 data on 38,039 inpatients and with data on 2287 inpatients and outpatients in the Pneumonia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT) cohort study. The prediction rule assigns points based on age and the presence of coexisting disease, abnormal physical findings (such as a respiratory rate of > or = 30 or a temperature of > or = 40 degrees C), and abnormal laboratory findings (such as a pH or = 30 mg per deciliter [11 mmol per liter] or a sodium concentration <130 mmol per liter) at presentation. There were no significant differences in mortality in each of the five risk classes among the three cohorts. Mortality ranged from 0.1 to 0.4 percent for class I patients (P=0.22), from 0.6 to 0.7 percent for class II (P=0.67), and from 0.9 to 2.8 percent for class III (P=0.12). Among the 1575 patients in the three lowest risk classes in the Pneumonia PORT cohort, there were only seven deaths, of which only four were pneumonia-related. The risk class was significantly associated with the risk of subsequent hospitalization among those treated as outpatients and with the use of intensive care and the number of days in the hospital among inpatients. The prediction rule we describe accurately identifies the patients with community-acquired pneumonia who are at low risk for death and other adverse outcomes. This prediction rule may help physicians make more rational decisions about hospitalization for patients with pneumonia.
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              The burden of respiratory syncytial virus infection in young children.

              The primary role of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in causing infant hospitalizations is well recognized, but the total burden of RSV infection among young children remains poorly defined. We conducted prospective, population-based surveillance of acute respiratory infections among children under 5 years of age in three U.S. counties. We enrolled hospitalized children from 2000 through 2004 and children presenting as outpatients in emergency departments and pediatric offices from 2002 through 2004. RSV was detected by culture and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Clinical information was obtained from parents and medical records. We calculated population-based rates of hospitalization associated with RSV infection and estimated the rates of RSV-associated outpatient visits. Among 5067 children enrolled in the study, 919 (18%) had RSV infections. Overall, RSV was associated with 20% of hospitalizations, 18% of emergency department visits, and 15% of office visits for acute respiratory infections from November through April. Average annual hospitalization rates were 17 per 1000 children under 6 months of age and 3 per 1000 children under 5 years of age. Most of the children had no coexisting illnesses. Only prematurity and a young age were independent risk factors for hospitalization. Estimated rates of RSV-associated office visits among children under 5 years of age were three times those in emergency departments. Outpatients had moderately severe RSV-associated illness, but few of the illnesses (3%) were diagnosed as being caused by RSV. RSV infection is associated with substantial morbidity in U.S. children in both inpatient and outpatient settings. Most children with RSV infection were previously healthy, suggesting that control strategies targeting only high-risk children will have a limited effect on the total disease burden of RSV infection. 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society

                Author and article information

                Pulm Med
                Pulm Med
                Pulmonary Medicine
                6 March 2023
                : 2023
                : 4310418
                College of Medicine-Riyadh, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Kazuyoshi Kuwano

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Ibrahim Bahabri et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 9 January 2023
                : 23 February 2023
                : 25 February 2023
                Research Article

                Respiratory medicine
                Respiratory medicine


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