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      Is COPD associated with periodontal disease? A population-based study in Spain

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          Abstract

          Background

          Periodontal disease is more prevalent and more severe among men and women suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared with healthy adults. The objectives of this paper were to assess the association between periodontal disease and COPD, controlling the effect of sociodemographic characteristics, oral health status, lifestyle variables, and comorbidities. Second, we identified which of the variables analyzed were independently associated with periodontal disease among COPD sufferers.

          Methods

          This descriptive study was done with data from the National/European Health Interview Surveys, conducted in years 2006, 2011/12, and 2014 in Spain. We included subjects ≥40 years of age. COPD status was self-reported. One non-COPD patient was matched by age, gender, and the year of survey for each COPD case. The presence of periodontal disease was defined using the answers “my teeth bleed spontaneously or while brushing” or/and “my teeth move” to the question: “Do you suffer of any of these dental and oral disorders or diseases?” Independent variables included demographic, socioeconomic, and health care-related variables, oral health status, and presence of comorbidities.

          Results

          The prevalence of periodontal disease was higher among COPD patients than their matched non-COPD controls (26.5% vs 22.2%; P<0.001). Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of periodontal disease for subjects with COPD was 1.21 (95% CI: 1.12–1.30). Suffering mental disorders (AOR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.32–1.97) was positively associated with higher risk of periodontal disease. Older age, having a private dental health insurance, and university education were variables associated with lower rates of periodontal disease.

          Conclusion

          Prevalence of periodontal disease was higher among those with COPD compared to non-COPD controls. Dentists and physicians should increase their awareness with their COPD patients, especially those who are younger, with lower education, and suffer depression and/or anxiety.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Stress, depression, cortisol, and periodontal disease.

          Stress and depression may affect the onset and progression of periodontal disease. However, to the best of our knowledge, no published study has established whether the mechanisms by which stress and depression influence periodontal disease are physiologic, behavioral, or both. This cross-sectional pilot study explored the associations between psychologic factors, markers of periodontal disease, psychoneuroimmunologic variables, and behavior. This study included 45 periodontal patients referred by three dentists. Participants completed composite health, chronic stress, depression, and demographic questions, and salivary cortisol (CORT) was measured. A hygienist assessed the magnitude of periodontal disease. Stress, depression, and CORT were correlated with measures of periodontal disease. In addition, oral care neglect during periods of stress and depression was associated with attachment loss and missing teeth. After controlling for age, family history, and brushing frequency, depression and CORT were significant predictors of the number of missing teeth. A similar model also predicted the number of teeth with clinical attachment loss >5 mm. Stress and depression may be associated with periodontal destruction through behavioral and physiologic mechanisms. Addressing psychologic factors, such as depression, may be an important part of periodontal preventive maintenance.
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            Long-term dental visiting patterns and adult oral health.

            To date, the evidence supporting the benefits of dental visiting comes from cross-sectional studies. We investigated whether long-term routine dental visiting was associated with lower experience of dental caries and missing teeth, and better self-rated oral health, by age 32. A prospective cohort study in New Zealand examined 932 participants' use of dentistry at ages 15, 18, 26, and 32. At each age, routine attenders (RAs) were identified as those who (a) usually visited for a check-up, and (b) had made a dental visit during the previous 12 months. Routine attending prevalence fell from 82% at age 15 to 28% by 32. At any given age, routine attenders had better-than-average oral health, fewer had teeth missing due to caries, and they had lower mean DS and DMFS scores. By age 32, routine attenders had better self-reported oral health and less tooth loss and caries. The longer routine attendance was maintained, the stronger the effect. Routine dental attendance is associated with better oral health.
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              Periodontitis prevalence in adults ≥ 65 years of age, in the USA.

              The older adult population is growing rapidly in the USA and it is expected that by 2040 the number of adults ≥ 65 years of age will have increased by about 50%. With the growth of this subpopulation, oral health status, and periodontal status in particular, becomes important in the quest to maintain an adequate quality of life. Poor oral health can have a major impact, leading to tooth loss, pain and discomfort, and may prevent older adults from chewing food properly, often leading to poor nutrition. Periodontitis is monitored in the USA at the national level as part of the Healthy People 2020 initiative. In this report, we provide estimates of the overall burden of periodontitis among adults ≥ 65 years of age and after stratification according to sociodemographic factors, modifiable risk factors (such as smoking status), the presence of other systemic conditions (such as diabetes) and access to dental care. We also estimated the burden of periodontitis within this age group at the state and local levels. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009/2010 and 2011/2012 cycles were analyzed. Periodontal measures from both survey cycles were based on a full-mouth periodontal examination. Nineteen per cent of adults in this subpopulation were edentulous. The mean age was 73 years, 7% were current smokers, 8% lived below the 100% Federal Poverty Level and < 40% had seen a dentist in the past year. Almost two-thirds (62.3%) had one or more sites with ≥ 5 mm of clinical attachment loss and almost half had at least one site with probing pocket depth of ≥ 4 mm. We estimated the lowest prevalence of periodontitis in Utah (62.3%) and New Hampshire (62.6%) and the highest in New Mexico, Hawaii, and the District of Columbia each with a prevalence of higher than 70%. Overall, periodontitis is highly prevalent in this subpopulation, with two-thirds of dentate older adults affected at any geographic level. These findings provide an opportunity to determine how the overall health-care management of older adults should consider the improvement of their oral health conditions. Many older adults do not have dental insurance and are also likely to have some chronic conditions, which can adversely affect their oral health.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2018
                18 October 2018
                : 13
                : 3435-3445
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Preventive Medicine and Public Health Teaching and Research Unit, Health Sciences Faculty, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Alcorcón, Spain, rodrigo.jimenez@ 123456urjc.es
                [2 ]Human Anatomy and Embryology Teaching and Research Unit, Health Sciences Faculty, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Alcorcón, Spain
                [3 ]Preventive Medicine, La Paz University Hospital, Madrid, Spain
                [4 ]Respiratory Department, Gregorio Marañon General University Hospital, Medical School, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain
                [5 ]Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón (IiSGM), Madrid, Spain
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Rodrigo Jiménez-García, Preventive Medicine and Public Health Teaching and Research Unit, Health Sciences Faculty, Rey Juan Carlos University, Avda de Atenas s/n, 28922 Alcorcón, Madrid, Spain, Tel +34 91 488 8623, Fax +34 91 488 8848, Email rodrigo.jimenez@ 123456urjc.es
                Article
                copd-13-3435
                10.2147/COPD.S174898
                6203114
                © 2018 Lopez-de-Andrés et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                periodontal disease, copd, survey, educational level

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