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      Apoptosis and Angiotensin II: Yet Another Renal Regulatory System?

      , ,

      Cardiorenal Medicine

      S. Karger AG

      Apoptosis, Angiotensin II, Angiotensin receptors, Proliferation

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          Abstract

          Apoptosis plays a key role in the regulation of normal renal structure and kidney remodeling in various renal diseases. Angiotensin II plays a prominent role in renal injury through its receptor subtypes, the type 1 (AT1) receptor and the type 2 (AT2) receptor, which involve different molecular mechanisms. In addition to its haemodynamic actions, angiotensin II induces apoptosis. Angiotensin II also increases proliferation in the kidney. A close correlation between renal cell proliferation and apoptosis has been shown in renal diseases as well as in the angiotensin II infusion model. Angiotensin induces upregulation of p53 and other pro-apoptotic proteins. Recent studies suggest that both AT1 and AT2 receptors influence the apoptotic process in the kidney. These apoptotic effects of angiotensin II should be considered as representing another regulatory mechanism that may modulate the balance between cell growth and proliferation within the kidney.

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          Most cited references 9

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          Role of NF-kappaB in p53-mediated programmed cell death.

          The tumour suppressor p53 inhibits cell growth through activation of cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis, and most cancers have either mutation within the p53 gene or defects in the ability to induce p53. Activation or re-introduction of p53 induces apoptosis in many tumour cells and may provide effective cancer therapy. One of the key proteins that modulates the apoptotic response is NF-kappaB, a transcription factor that can protect or contribute to apoptosis. Here we show that induction of p53 causes an activation of NF-kappaB that correlates with the ability of p53 to induce apoptosis. Inhibition or loss of NF-kappaB activity abrogated p53-induced apoptosis, indicating that NF-kappaB is essential in p53-mediated cell death. Activation of NF-kappaB by p53 was distinct from that mediated by tumour-necrosis factor-alpha and involved MEK1 and the activation of pp90rsk. Inhibition of MEK1 blocked activation of NF-kappaB by p53 and completely abrogated p53-induced cell death. We conclude that inhibition of NF-kappaB in tumours that retain wild-type p53 may diminish, rather than augment, a therapeutic response.
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            Angiotensin II type 2 receptor mediates programmed cell death.

            The function of the recently discovered angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor remains elusive. This receptor is expressed abundantly in fetus, but scantily in adult tissues except brain, adrenal medulla, and atretic ovary. In this study, we demonstrated that this receptor mediates programmed cell death (apoptosis). We observed this effect in PC12W cells (rat pheochromocytoma cell line) and R3T3 cells (mouse fibroblast cell line), which express abundant AT2 receptor but not AT1 receptor. The cellular mechanism appears to involve the dephosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase). Vanadate, a protein-tyrosine-phosphatase inhibitor, attenuated the dephosphorylation of MAP kinases by the AT2 receptor and restored the apoptotic changes. Antisense oligonucleotide to MAP kinase phosphatase 1 inhibited the AT2 receptor-mediated MAP kinase dephosphorylation and blocked the AT2 receptor-mediated apoptosis. These results suggest that protein-tyrosine-phosphatase, including MAP kinase phosphatase 1 activated by the AT2 receptor, is involved in apoptosis. We hypothesize that this apoptotic function of the AT2 receptor may play an important role in developmental biology and pathophysiology.
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              Angiotensin II induces apoptosis of adult ventricular myocytes in vitro.

              To determine whether angiotensin II (Ang II) activates the suicide program of myocytes, primary cultures of adult rat ventricular myocytes were exposed to 10(-9) M of Ang II, for 24 h. Ang II resulted in a five-fold increase in programmed myocyte cell death (PMCD) documented by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase assay and confirmed by DNA agarose gel electrophoresis. Ang II stimulation was associated with translocation of the epsilon and delta isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC) which was coupled with an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ in the cells. The PKC inhibitor chelerythrine abolished Ang II-mediated increases in cytosolic Ca2+ and PMCD. Similarly, pretreatment of cells with the intracellular Ca2+ chelator BAPTA/AM inhibited the formation of DNA strand breaks. Conversely, the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 markedly increased PMCD. Finally, the AT1 receptor antagonist, losartan, completely blocked Ang II-induced PMCD, whereas the AT2 receptor antagonist, PD123319, did not attenuate this phenomenon. In conclusion, ligand binding of AT1 receptors on myocytes triggers PMCD by a mechanism involving PKC-mediated increases in cytosolic calcium, which result in internucleosomal DNA fragmentation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                EXN
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2129
                2001
                2001
                31 August 2001
                : 9
                : 5
                : 295-300
                Affiliations
                Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre, Heidelberg West, Vic., Australia
                Article
                52624 Exp Nephrol 2001;9:295–300
                10.1159/000052624
                11549846
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, References: 43, Pages: 6
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/52624
                Categories
                Minireview

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Angiotensin II, Angiotensin receptors, Proliferation, Apoptosis

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