Neutrophils accumulate in patient lungs during clinical hemodialysis and in isolated blood-perfused guinea pig lungs due to the contact between blood and extracorporeal system. However, it is unclear how these sequestered and partly activated neutrophils affect the lung microvasculature. We, therefore, studied pulmonary vascular resistance, vascular permeability, gas exchange, and oxygen free radical production in isolated guinea pig lungs during perfusion with whole blood containing partly ‘activated’ neutrophils in comparison with perfusions using leukopenic blood. We also connected a Cuprophan hemodialysis membrane to the whole-blood perfusion system in order to investigate whether a dialyzer, which may further activate leukocytes, affects lung microvascular permeability, vascular resistances, and reactive oxygen species production. The sequestered neutrophils did not seem to markedly affect the lung microvascular function, since neither the leukocyte-free perfusion nor the hemodialysis membrane altered any of the measured variables as compared with whole-blood perfusion in a system without a dialyzer. We conclude that neutrophils, whether activated by a perfusion system or by a dialysis membrane, can accumulate in isolated lungs without adversely affecting the microvascular function.