Neointimal formation is a common feature after angioplasty, bypass grafting and stenting. Angioplasty damages endothelium, causing pathological changes in arteries which lead to smooth muscle cell proliferation, synthesis of extracellular matrix components and eventually restenosis formation. Adenoviruses offer an efficient transgene expression in the vascular system. In this study, we compared the effects of different gene combinations. We wanted to find out whether adenoviral catheter-mediated delivery of an additive combination of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A with VEGF-C is more effective than the combination of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) alone or with VEGF-C in a rabbit balloon denudation model. Additionally, we wanted to clarify whether the combination therapy prolongs the treatment effect. It was found that TIMP-1 alone prevents restenosis and that the combination of VEGF-A and VEGF-C has a similar effect at the 2-week time point. However, the combination of VEGF-A and VEGF-C lost the treatment effect at the 4-week time point due to the catch-up growth of neointima. On the other hand, TIMP-1 and the combination of TIMP-1 with VEGF-C still had an extended treatment effect at the 4-week time point. When considering the gene combination used in this study, it is concluded that gene therapy with adenoviral TIMP-1 alone is sufficient in reducing restenosis and that combination gene therapy does not bring any significant advantages.