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      Balance between Matrix Metalloproteinases and Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinases

      a , * , b

      Cardiology

      S. Karger AG

      Aorta

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          The Multitasking Role of Macrophages in Stanford Type A Acute Aortic Dissection

          Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine whether the release by macrophages of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) - leading to inflammation, matrix degradation and neoangiogenesis - represents an effective pathway that underlies aortic wall remodeling in Stanford type A acute aortic dissection (AAD). Methods: Twenty-one consecutive patients with no genetic predisposition, with Stanford type A AAD were selected. In each patient, the levels of serum VEGF, MMP-12, serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ascending aortic specimens were collected for immunohistochemical identification of any presence of inflammatory infiltrate, VEGF and CD31 expression. Results: A significant increase in serum VEGF (p = 0.044), MMP-12 (p = 0.007), IL-6 (p = 0.0001), IL-8 (p = 0.0001) and MCP-1 (p = 0.0001) levels was observed in the AAD group compared to the control group. Furthermore, all AAD samples were positive for VEGF in the tunica media and showed vessel growth and immune-inflammatory infiltrate. A large number of cases (62.79%) showed inflammation at the edge of the dissection and approximately half (51.42%) showed neovessels growing at the edge of the dissection. Conclusions: The results suggest that VEGF-mediated angiogenesis and matrix degradation play a role in AAD. Finally, we believe that MMP-12 should be considered a marker of AAD.
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            Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-12 in aortic dissection

            Background Aortic dissection(AD) is an acute process of large blood vessels characterized by dangerous pathogenic conditions and high disability and high mortality. The pathogenesis of AD remains debated. Matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12) participates in many pathological processes such as abdominal aortic aneurysm, atherosclerosis, emphysema and cancer. However, this elastase has rarely been assessed in the presence of AD. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of MMP-12 in aortic tissue so as to offer a better understanding of the possible mechanisms of AD. Methods The protein expression levels of MMP-12 were analyzed and compared in aorta tissue and the blood serum samples by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR), Western blotting, immuno-histochemistry, fluorescence resonance energy transfer ( FRET ) activity assay and enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay ( ELISA ), respectively. Ascending aorta tissue specimens were obtained from 12 patients with an acute Stanford A-dissection at the time of aortic replacement, and from 4 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. Meanwhile, serum samples were harvested from 15 patients with an acute Stanford A-dissection and 10 healthy individuals who served as the control group. Results MMP-12 activity could be detected in both AD and CAD groups, but the level in the AD group was higher than those in the CAD group (P < 0.05). MMP-12 proteolysis existed in both serum samples of the AD and healthy groups, and the activity level in the AD group was clearly higher than in the healthy group (P < 0.05). For AD patients, MMP-12 activity in serum was higher than in the aorta wall (P < 0.05). MMP-12 activity in the aortic wall tissue can be inhibited by MMP inhibitor v (P < 0.05). Conclusion The present study directly demonstrates that MMP-12 proteolytic activity exists within the aorta specimens and blood samples from aortic dissection patients. MMP-12 might be of potential relevance as a clinically diagnostic tool and therapeutic target in vascular injury and repair.
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              Thoracic aortic dissection: are matrix metalloproteinases involved?

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2014
                July 2014
                05 June 2014
                : 128
                : 4
                : 316
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Cardiology, Aksaz Military Hospital, Marmaris, and bDepartment of Cardiology, Gülhane Military Medical Faculty, Ankara, Turkey
                Author notes
                *Emre Yalcinkaya, MD, Department of Cardiology, Aksaz Military Hospital, TR-48750 Marmaris (Turkey), E-Mail dremreyalcinkaya@gmail.com
                Article
                362642 Cardiology 2014;128:316
                10.1159/000362642
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Pages: 1
                Categories
                Letter to the Editor

                General medicine, Neurology, Cardiovascular Medicine, Internal medicine, Nephrology

                Aorta

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