Javier Franco-Pérez 1 , * , Joaquín Manjarrez-Marmolejo 1 , Paola Ballesteros-Zebadúa 2 , Adriana Neri-Santos 1 , 3 , Sergio Montes 4 , Norma Suarez-Rivera 1 , Miguel Hernández-Cerón 5 , Vadim Pérez-Koldenkova 6
10 November 2018
It has been widely described that chronic intake of fructose causes metabolic alterations which can be associated with brain function impairment. In this study, we evaluated the effects of fructose intake on the sleep–wake cycle, locomotion, and neurochemical parameters in Wistar rats. The experimental group was fed with 10% fructose in drinking water for five weeks. After treatment, metabolic indicators were quantified in blood. Electroencephalographic recordings were used to evaluate the sleep architecture and the spectral power of frequency bands. Likewise, the locomotor activity and the concentrations of orexin A and monoamines were estimated. Our results show that fructose diet significantly increased the blood levels of glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides. Fructose modified the sleep–wake cycle of rats, increasing the waking duration and conversely decreasing the non-rapid eye movement sleep. Furthermore, these effects were accompanied by increases of the spectral power at different frequency bands. Chronic consumption of fructose caused a slight increase in the locomotor activity as well as an increase of orexin A and dopamine levels in the hypothalamus and brainstem. Specifically, immunoreactivity for orexin A was increased in the ventral tegmental area after the intake of fructose. Our study suggests that fructose induces metabolic changes and stimulates the activity of orexinergic and dopaminergic neurons, which may be responsible for alterations of the sleep–wake cycle.