Several concepts, which in the aggregate get might be used to account for "resilience"
against age- and disease-related changes, have been the subject of much research.
These include brain reserve, cognitive reserve, and brain maintenance. However, different
investigators have use these terms in different ways, and there has never been an
attempt to arrive at consensus on the definition of these concepts. Furthermore, there
has been confusion regarding the measurement of these constructs and the appropriate
ways to apply them to research. Therefore the reserve, resilience, and protective
factors professional interest area, established under the auspices of the Alzheimer's
Association, established a whitepaper workgroup to develop consensus definitions for
cognitive reserve, brain reserve, and brain maintenance. The workgroup also evaluated
measures that have been used to implement these concepts in research settings and
developed guidelines for research that explores or utilizes these concepts. The workgroup
hopes that this whitepaper will form a reference point for researchers in this area
and facilitate research by supplying a common language.