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      Blockade of Intranigral and Systemic D3 Receptors Stimulates Motor Activity in the Rat Promoting a Reciprocal Interaction among Glutamate, Dopamine, and GABA


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          In vivo activation of dopamine D3 receptors (D3Rs) depresses motor activity. D3Rs are widely expressed in subthalamic, striatal, and dendritic dopaminergic inputs into the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). In vitro studies showed that nigral D3Rs modulate their neurotransmitter release; thus, it could be that these changes in neurotransmitter levels modify the discharge of nigro-thalamic neurons and, therefore, motor behavior. To determine how the in vitro responses correspond to the in vivo responses, we examined the effect of intra-nigral and systemic blockade of D3Rs in the interstitial content of glutamate, dopamine, and GABA within the SNr using microdialysis coupled to motor activity determinations in freely moving rats. Intranigral unilateral blockade of D3R with GR 103,691 increased glutamate, dopamine, and GABA. Increments correlated with increased ambulatory distance, non-ambulatory activity, and induced contralateral turning. Concomitant blockade of D3R with D1R by perfusion of SCH 23390 reduced the increase of glutamate; prevented the increment of GABA, but not of dopamine; and abolished behavioral effects. Glutamate stimulates dopamine release by NMDA receptors, while blockade with kynurenic acid prevented the increase in dopamine and, in turn, of GABA and glutamate. Finally, systemic administration of D3R selective antagonist U 99194A increased glutamate, dopamine, and GABA in SNr and stimulated motor activity. Blockade of intra-nigral D1R with SCH 23390 prior to systemic U 99194A diminished increases in neurotransmitter levels and locomotor activity. These data highlight the pivotal role of presynaptic nigral D3 and D1R in the control of motor activity and help to explain part of the effects of the in vivo administration of D3R agents.

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          Modulation of striatal projection systems by dopamine.

          The basal ganglia are a chain of subcortical nuclei that facilitate action selection. Two striatal projection systems--so-called direct and indirect pathways--form the functional backbone of the basal ganglia circuit. Twenty years ago, investigators proposed that the striatum's ability to use dopamine (DA) rise and fall to control action selection was due to the segregation of D(1) and D(2) DA receptors in direct- and indirect-pathway spiny projection neurons. Although this hypothesis sparked a debate, the evidence that has accumulated since then clearly supports this model. Recent advances in the means of marking neural circuits with optical or molecular reporters have revealed a clear-cut dichotomy between these two cell types at the molecular, anatomical, and physiological levels. The contrast provided by these studies has provided new insights into how the striatum responds to fluctuations in DA signaling and how diseases that alter this signaling change striatal function.
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            Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel dopamine receptor (D3) as a target for neuroleptics.

            A dopamine receptor has been characterized which differs in its pharmacology and signalling system from the D1 or D2 receptor and represents both an autoreceptor and a postsynaptic receptor. The D3 receptor is localized to limbic areas of the brain, which are associated with cognitive, emotional and endocrine functions. It seems to mediate some of the effects of antipsychotic drugs and drugs used against Parkinson's disease, that were previously thought to interact only with D2 receptors.
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              Dopamine spillover after quantal release: rethinking dopamine transmission in the nigrostriatal pathway.

              The predominance of dopamine (DA) receptors at extrasynaptic vs. synaptic sites implies that DA signaling is by diffusion-based volume transmission. In this review, we compare characteristics that regulate extracellular DA behavior in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and striatum, including regional differences in structure (a 40% greater extracellular volume fraction in SNc vs. striatum) and in dynamic DA uptake (a 200-fold greater DA uptake rate in striatum vs. SNc). Furthermore, we test the assumption of diffusion-based volume transmission for SNc and striatum by modeling dynamic DA behavior after quantal release using region-specific parameters for diffusion and uptake at 37 degrees C. Our model shows that DA uptake does not affect peak DA concentration within 1 mum of a release site in either SNc or striatum because of the slow kinetics of DATs vs. diffusion. Rather, diffusion and dilution are the dominant factors governing DA concentration after quantal release. In SNc, limited DAT efficacy is reflected in a lack of influence of uptake on either amplitude or time course of DA transients after quantal release up to 10 mum from a release site. In striatum, the lack of effect of the DAT within 1 mum of a release site means that perisynaptic DATs do not "gate" synaptic spillover. This contrasts with the conventional view of DA synapses, in which DATs efficiently recycle DA by re-uptake into the releasing axon terminal. However, the model also shows that a primary effect of striatal uptake is to curtail DA lifetime after release. In both SNc and striatum, effective DA radius after quantal release is ~2 mum for activation of low-affinity DA receptors and 7-8 mum for high-affinity receptors; the corresponding spheres of influence would encompass tens to thousands of synapses. Thus, the primary mode of intercellular communication by DA, regardless of region, is volume transmission.

                Author and article information

                20 September 2019
                October 2019
                : 9
                : 10
                : 511
                [1 ]Departamento de Farmacología, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Ciudad de México 07360, Mexico
                [2 ]Laboratory of Neurobiology of Eating, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, FES Iztacala, Ciudad de México 54090, Mexico
                [3 ]Departamento de Farmacia, Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México 04510, Mexico
                [4 ]Departamento de Fisiología, Biofísica y Neurociencias, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Ciudad de México 07360, Mexico
                [5 ]Department of Physiology SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA
                [6 ]Laboratorio de Medicina Genómica, Departamento de Genética, Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación Luis Guillermo Ibarra Ibarra, Ciudad de México 14389, Mexico
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: bfloran@ 123456fisio.cinvestav.mx ; Tel.: +52-55-5747-3800 (ext. 5137)

                Before the submission of the final version of this manuscript, David Erlij passed away. Deceased 28 June 2018.

                Author information
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 31 August 2019
                : 19 September 2019

                d3 receptors,subthalamo–nigral pathway,substantia nigra reticulata,d1-like receptors


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