The impact of upregulation of platelet membrane glycoprotein (GP)IIb/IIIa and P-selectin on the onset of arterial thrombosis, venous thrombosis, and cancer encourages to hypothesize that dual inhibitor of GPIIb/IIIa and P-selectin receptors should simultaneously inhibit arterial thrombosis, block venous thrombosis, and slow tumor growth.
For this reason, the structural characteristics and the CDOCKER interaction energies of 12 carbolines were analyzed. This led to the design of 1-(4-isopropyl-phenyl)- β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (ICCA) as a promising inhibitor of GPIIb/IIIa and P-selectin receptors.
The synthetic route provided ICCA in 48% total yield and 99.6% high-performance liquid chromatography purity. In vivo 5 μmol/kg oral ICCA downregulated GPIIb/IIIa and P-selectin expression thereby inhibited arterial thrombosis, blocked venous thrombosis, and slowed down tumor growth, but did not damage the kidney and the liver.