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      PI3K-Akt-mTOR axis sustains rotavirus infection via the 4E-BP1 mediated autophagy pathway and represents an antiviral target

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          ABSTRACT

          Rotavirus infection is a major cause of severe dehydrating diarrhea in infants younger than 5 y old and in particular cases of immunocompromised patients irrespective to the age of the patients. Although vaccines have been developed, antiviral therapy is an important complement that cannot be substituted. Because of the lack of specific approved treatment, it is urgent to facilitate the cascade of further understanding of the infection biology, identification of druggable targets and the final development of effective antiviral therapies. PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway plays a vital role in regulating the infection course of many viruses. In this study, we have dissected the effects of PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway on rotavirus infection using both conventional cell culture models and a 3D model of human primary intestinal organoids. We found that PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling is essential in sustaining rotavirus infection. Thus, blocking the key elements of this pathway, including PI3K, mTOR and 4E-BP1, has resulted in potent anti-rotavirus activity. Importantly, a clinically used mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, potently inhibited both experimental and patient-derived rotavirus strains. This effect involves 4E-BP1 mediated induction of autophagy, which in turn exerts anti-rotavirus effects. These results revealed new insights on rotavirus-host interactions and provided new avenues for antiviral drug development.

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          Most cited references 57

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          mTOR regulation of autophagy.

          Nutrient starvation induces autophagy in eukaryotic cells through inhibition of TOR (target of rapamycin), an evolutionarily-conserved protein kinase. TOR, as a central regulator of cell growth, plays a key role at the interface of the pathways that coordinately regulate the balance between cell growth and autophagy in response to nutritional status, growth factor and stress signals. Although TOR has been known as a key regulator of autophagy for more than a decade, the underlying regulatory mechanisms have not been clearly understood. This review discusses the recent advances in understanding of the mechanism by which TOR regulates autophagy with focus on mammalian TOR (mTOR) and its regulation of the autophagy machinery. Copyright 2010 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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            The Beclin 1 network regulates autophagy and apoptosis.

             M Lotze,  R Kang,  H Zeh (2011)
            Beclin 1, the mammalian orthologue of yeast Atg6, has a central role in autophagy, a process of programmed cell survival, which is increased during periods of cell stress and extinguished during the cell cycle. It interacts with several cofactors (Atg14L, UVRAG, Bif-1, Rubicon, Ambra1, HMGB1, nPIST, VMP1, SLAM, IP(3)R, PINK and survivin) to regulate the lipid kinase Vps-34 protein and promote formation of Beclin 1-Vps34-Vps15 core complexes, thereby inducing autophagy. In contrast, the BH3 domain of Beclin 1 is bound to, and inhibited by Bcl-2 or Bcl-XL. This interaction can be disrupted by phosphorylation of Bcl-2 and Beclin 1, or ubiquitination of Beclin 1. Interestingly, caspase-mediated cleavage of Beclin 1 promotes crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy. Beclin 1 dysfunction has been implicated in many disorders, including cancer and neurodegeneration. Here, we summarize new findings regarding the organization and function of the Beclin 1 network in cellular homeostasis, focusing on the cross-regulation between apoptosis and autophagy. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited
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              A SIMPLE METHOD OF ESTIMATING FIFTY PER CENT ENDPOINTS12

               L.J. REED,  H. MUENCH (1938)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Virulence
                Virulence
                KVIR
                kvir20
                Virulence
                Taylor & Francis
                2150-5594
                2150-5608
                2018
                1 June 2017
                1 June 2017
                : 9
                : 1
                : 83-98
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus MC-University Medical Center , Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                [b ]Medical Faculty, Kunming University of Science and Technology , Kunming, P. R. China
                [c ]State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) , Lanzhou, P. R. China
                [d ]State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University , Wuhan, P. R. China
                Author notes
                CONTACT Qiuwei Pan q.pan@ 123456erasmusmc.nl Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Erasmus MC, room Na-617, ‘sGravendijkwal 230, NL-3015 CE Rotterdam, The Netherlands

                Color versions of one or more of the figures in the article can be found online at www.tandfonline.com/kvir.

                Supplemental data for this article can be accessed on the publisher's website.

                Article
                1326443
                10.1080/21505594.2017.1326443
                5955461
                28475412
                © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The moral rights of the named author(s) have been asserted.

                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 57, Pages: 16
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