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      Progress of Plant Medicine Derived Extracts and Alkaloids on Modulating Viral Infections and Inflammation

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          Viral infectious diseases are serious threats to human health in both developing and developed countries. Although there is the continued development of new drugs from synthetic sources as antiviral agents, medicinal plants continue to provide the basic raw materials for some of the most important antiviral drugs. Alkaloids are a class of pharmacologically active plant compounds that are usually alkaline in nature. In this review, we tried to summarize recent progress in herb-based antiviral research, the advantages of using active plant compounds as antiviral agents, and the inflammatory responses initiated by alkaloids, based on the literature from 2009 to 2019, for the treatment of conditions, including influenza, human immunodeficiency virus, herpes simplex virus, hepatitis, and coxsackievirus infections. Articles are retrieved from PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science using relevant keywords. In particular, the alkaloids from medicinal plants responsible for the molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory actions are identified and discussed. This review can provide a theoretical basis and approaches for using various alkaloids as antiviral treatments. More research is needed to develop alkaloidal compounds as antiviral therapeutic agents and potential regulators of the anti-inflammatory response.

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          Most cited references 109

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              The pro-inflammatory signalling pathways and cellular mechanisms that initiate the inflammatory response have become increasingly well characterized. However, little is known about the mediators and mechanisms that switch off inflammation. Recent data indicate that the resolution of inflammation is an active process controlled by endogenous mediators that suppress pro-inflammatory gene expression and cell trafficking, as well as induce inflammatory-cell apoptosis and phagocytosis, which are crucial determinants of successful resolution. This review focuses on this emerging area of inflammation research and describes the mediators and mechanisms that are currently stealing the headlines.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                31 March 2021
                : 15
                : 1385-1408
                [1 ]School of Clinical Pharmacy, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University , Guangzhou, 510006, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Key Laboratory of Digital Quality Evaluation of Chinese Materia Medica of State Administration of TCM, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University , Guangzhou, 510006, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Engineering & Technology Research Center for Chinese Materia Medica Quality of the Universities of Guangdong Province, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University , Guangzhou, 510006, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]Key Laboratory of Molecular Target & Clinical Pharmacology, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University , Guangzhou, 511436, People’s Republic of China
                [5 ]Guangdong Institute of Analysis (China National Analytical Center, Guangzhou) , Guangzhou, 510070, People’s Republic of China
                [6 ]School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University , Guangzhou, 510006, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Qian Yu; Shumei Wang Email qyu@gdpu.edu.cn; gdpuwsm@126.com

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2021 Ti et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 9, Tables: 1, References: 109, Pages: 24


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