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      Progress of Plant Medicine Derived Extracts and Alkaloids on Modulating Viral Infections and Inflammation


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          Viral infectious diseases are serious threats to human health in both developing and developed countries. Although there is the continued development of new drugs from synthetic sources as antiviral agents, medicinal plants continue to provide the basic raw materials for some of the most important antiviral drugs. Alkaloids are a class of pharmacologically active plant compounds that are usually alkaline in nature. In this review, we tried to summarize recent progress in herb-based antiviral research, the advantages of using active plant compounds as antiviral agents, and the inflammatory responses initiated by alkaloids, based on the literature from 2009 to 2019, for the treatment of conditions, including influenza, human immunodeficiency virus, herpes simplex virus, hepatitis, and coxsackievirus infections. Articles are retrieved from PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science using relevant keywords. In particular, the alkaloids from medicinal plants responsible for the molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory actions are identified and discussed. This review can provide a theoretical basis and approaches for using various alkaloids as antiviral treatments. More research is needed to develop alkaloidal compounds as antiviral therapeutic agents and potential regulators of the anti-inflammatory response.

          Most cited references109

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          Immunity, inflammation, and cancer.

          Inflammatory responses play decisive roles at different stages of tumor development, including initiation, promotion, malignant conversion, invasion, and metastasis. Inflammation also affects immune surveillance and responses to therapy. Immune cells that infiltrate tumors engage in an extensive and dynamic crosstalk with cancer cells, and some of the molecular events that mediate this dialog have been revealed. This review outlines the principal mechanisms that govern the effects of inflammation and immunity on tumor development and discusses attractive new targets for cancer therapy and prevention. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Natural Products as Sources of New Drugs over the Nearly Four Decades from 01/1981 to 09/2019

            This review is an updated and expanded version of the five prior reviews that were published in this journal in 1997, 2003, 2007, 2012, and 2016. For all approved therapeutic agents, the time frame has been extended to cover the almost 39 years from the first of January 1981 to the 30th of September 2019 for all diseases worldwide and from ∼1946 (earliest so far identified) to the 30th of September 2019 for all approved antitumor drugs worldwide. As in earlier reviews, only the first approval of any drug is counted, irrespective of how many "biosimilars" or added approvals were subsequently identified. As in the 2012 and 2016 reviews, we have continued to utilize our secondary subdivision of a "natural product mimic", or "NM", to join the original primary divisions, and the designation "natural product botanical", or "NB", to cover those botanical "defined mixtures" now recognized as drug entities by the FDA (and similar organizations). From the data presented in this review, the utilization of natural products and/or synthetic variations using their novel structures, in order to discover and develop the final drug entity, is still alive and well. For example, in the area of cancer, over the time frame from 1946 to 1980, of the 75 small molecules, 40, or 53.3%, are N or ND. In the 1981 to date time frame the equivalent figures for the N* compounds of the 185 small molecules are 62, or 33.5%, though to these can be added the 58 S* and S*/NMs, bringing the figure to 64.9%. In other areas, the influence of natural product structures is quite marked with, as expected from prior information, the anti-infective area being dependent on natural products and their structures, though as can be seen in the review there are still disease areas (shown in Table 2) for which there are no drugs derived from natural products. Although combinatorial chemistry techniques have succeeded as methods of optimizing structures and have been used very successfully in the optimization of many recently approved agents, we are still able to identify only two de novo combinatorial compounds (one of which is a little speculative) approved as drugs in this 39-year time frame, though there is also one drug that was developed using the "fragment-binding methodology" and approved in 2012. We have also added a discussion of candidate drug entities currently in clinical trials as "warheads" and some very interesting preliminary reports on sources of novel antibiotics from Nature due to the absolute requirement for new agents to combat plasmid-borne resistance genes now in the general populace. We continue to draw the attention of readers to the recognition that a significant number of natural product drugs/leads are actually produced by microbes and/or microbial interactions with the "host from whence it was isolated"; thus we consider that this area of natural product research should be expanded significantly.
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              Anti-inflammatory lipid mediators and insights into the resolution of inflammation.

              The pro-inflammatory signalling pathways and cellular mechanisms that initiate the inflammatory response have become increasingly well characterized. However, little is known about the mediators and mechanisms that switch off inflammation. Recent data indicate that the resolution of inflammation is an active process controlled by endogenous mediators that suppress pro-inflammatory gene expression and cell trafficking, as well as induce inflammatory-cell apoptosis and phagocytosis, which are crucial determinants of successful resolution. This review focuses on this emerging area of inflammation research and describes the mediators and mechanisms that are currently stealing the headlines.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                31 March 2021
                : 15
                : 1385-1408
                [1 ]School of Clinical Pharmacy, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University , Guangzhou, 510006, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Key Laboratory of Digital Quality Evaluation of Chinese Materia Medica of State Administration of TCM, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University , Guangzhou, 510006, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Engineering & Technology Research Center for Chinese Materia Medica Quality of the Universities of Guangdong Province, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University , Guangzhou, 510006, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]Key Laboratory of Molecular Target & Clinical Pharmacology, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University , Guangzhou, 511436, People’s Republic of China
                [5 ]Guangdong Institute of Analysis (China National Analytical Center, Guangzhou) , Guangzhou, 510070, People’s Republic of China
                [6 ]School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University , Guangzhou, 510006, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Qian Yu; Shumei Wang Email qyu@gdpu.edu.cn; gdpuwsm@126.com

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2021 Ti et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                : 06 January 2021
                : 09 March 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 9, Tables: 1, References: 109, Pages: 24

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                viral infectious diseases,alkaloids,antiviral,anti-inflammatory responses,antiviral therapeutic agents


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