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      Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of crude root extract and solvent fractions of Cucumis ficifolius in mice model

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          Background: Societies in developing countries use traditional medicine as alternatives for management of pain and inflammation. The plant Cucumis ficifolius has been used in Ethiopia to treat many ailments including inflammation and pain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the crude root extract and solvent fractions of C. ficifolius.

          Methods: The analgesic activity of crude extract and solvent fractions of C. ficifolius was evaluated with acetic acid-induced writhing, hot plate, and formalin-induced paw licking tests. The anti-inflammatory effect of crude methanolic root extract and solvent fractions of C. ficifolius was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema. The crude extract was given at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg. Butanol and aqueous fractions were given at 100 and 200 mg/kg doses. The negative control groups were treated with distilled water (10 mL/kg). Standard drugs used were acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in acetic acid, formalin tests and carrageenan-induced paw edema and morphine (20 mg/kg) in hot plate test.

          Results: The crude extract, at its maximum dose, produced comparable analgesic activity (72.5%) to ASA in acetic acid writhing test. In the hot plate test, both the crude extract and solvent fractions exhibited a significant prolongation of nociception reaction time. Formalin test result indicated a significant reduction of mean lick time with maximal protection of 64% (early phase) and 83% (late phase). Aqueous and butanol fractions showed good analgesic activity in the three models. Inflammation was decreased by 69% with butanol (200 mg/kg); 71% (800 mg/kg) of crude extract and by 41% and 56% with the use of aqueous fraction at 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively ( p<0.001).

          Conclusion: The present study indicates that the crude methanolic root extract, as well as butanol and aqueous solvent fractions, showed anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Carrageenin-induced edema in hind paw of the rat as an assay for antiiflammatory drugs.

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            The formalin test in mice: dissociation between inflammatory and non-inflammatory pain.

            The formalin test in mice is a valid and reliable model of nociception and is sensitive for various classes of analgesic drugs. The noxious stimulus is an injection of dilute formalin (1% in saline) under the skin of the dorsal surface of the right hindpaw. The response is the amount of time the animals spend licking the injected paw. Two distinct periods of high licking activity can be identified, an early phase lasting the first 5 min and a late phase lasting from 20 to 30 min after the injection of formalin. In order to elucidate the involvement of inflammatory processes in the two phases, we tested different classes of drugs in the two phases independently. Morphine, codeine, nefopam, and orphenadrine, as examples of centrally acting analgesics, were antinociceptive in both phases. In contrast, the non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs indomethacin and naproxen and the steroids dexamethasone and hydrocortisone inhibited only the late phase, while acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and paracetamol were antinociceptive in both phases. The results demonstrate that the two phases in the formalin test may have different nociceptive mechanisms. It is suggested that the early phase is due to a direct effect on nociceptors and that prostaglandins do not play an important role during this phase. The late phase seems to be an inflammatory response with inflammatory pain that can be inhibited by anti-inflammatory drugs. ASA and paracetamol seem to have actions independent of their inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis and they also have effects on non-inflammatory pain.
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              The formalin test: a quantitative study of the analgesic effects of morphine, meperidine, and brain stem stimulation in rats and cats.

              A method for assessing pain and analgesia in rats and cats is described. The procedure involves subcutaneous injection of dilute formalin into the forepaw, after which the animal's responses are rated according to objective behavioral criteria. The formalin test is a statistically valid technique which has two advantages over other pain tests: (1) little or no restraint is necessary, permitting unhindered observation of the complete range of behavioral responses; and (2) the pain stimulus is continuous rather than transient, thus bearing greater resemblance to most clinical pain. The analgesic effects of morphine, meperidine, and stimulation of the periaqueductal grey matter are evaluated using this test.

                Author and article information

                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                30 April 2019
                : 12
                : 1399-1409
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University , Mekelle, Ethiopia
                [2 ]Department of Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Adigrat University , Adigrat, Ethiopia
                [3 ]Department of Pharmacy, College of Medicine, Debre Berhan University , Debre Berhan, Ethiopia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Derbew Fikadu Berhe Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University , Mekelle PO Box 1871, EthiopiaEmail derakorem@ 123456gmail.com
                © 2019 Demsie et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 4, References: 53, Pages: 11
                Original Research


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