Countrywide salt iodization, to prevent nutritional iodine deficiency, has been achieved in India recently. The current study was planned to evaluate the prevalence of goiter and thyroid autoimmunity and assess thyroid functional status in a cohort of 6283 healthy schoolgirls from different parts of the country in the postiodization phase. Goitrous girls (n = 1810; 28% of subjects) were investigated for serum T4 and TSH, antithyroid microsomal antibody (TMA) and antithyroglobulin antibody (TGA), urinary iodine excretion, and cytomorphology by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). FNAC carried out successfully in 764 goitrous girls revealed juvenile autoimmune thyroiditis (JAT) in 58 (7.5%), which included Hashimoto's thyroiditis in 43 (5.6%) and focal lymphocytic thyroiditis in 15 (1.9%). TMA and TGA estimated in 722 goitrous girls detected significantly positive titers of TMA (> or =1:1600) and TGA (> or =1:160) in 52 (7.2%) and 4 (0.55%) girls, respectively. Only 29 (67.4%) girls with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were TMA positive. In patients with FNAC-proven JAT, overt clinical and biochemical hypothyroidism was seen in three (6.5%) and subclinical hypothyroidism in seven (15%). Subclinical hyperthyroidism was detected in 5.1% cases of JAT, and none had overt hyperthyroidism. No definite correlation was seen between urinary iodine excretion and thyroid autoimmunity.