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      Overweight and obesity prevalence and its predictors in a general population: A community-based study in Kerman, Iran (Kerman coronary artery diseases risk factors studies)

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          The aim of this study was to present age-sex standardized prevalence of overweight and obesity as well as central obesity and its associated variables in an adult population of Iran.


          Around 5900 adult individuals aged 15-75 years enrolled to the study from 2009 to 2011 applying randomized cluster household survey in Kerman, southeastern of Iran. Overweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) 25-29.9 kg/m2, obesity was considered as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, and central obesity was regarded as waist circumference (WC) > 88 cm for women and 102 cm for men.


          The overall age-sex standardized prevalence of overweight, obesity and central obesity was 29.6% (29.5% men, 29.7% women), 13.0% (9.3% men, 16.9% women) and 14.4% (7.5% men, 21.5% women), respectively. “Overweight/obesity” increased by age, [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 7.9 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.8, 10.7)] for 65-75 years old, 11.7 (95% CI: 9, 15.3) for 55-65 years old, 10.1 (95% CI: 7.8, 13) for 45-54 years old compared with the first age group), female gender [AOR: 1.5 (1.3, 1.8); P < 0.001], higher education (AOR > 1.5 compared with illiterate individuals; P < 0.001), and low physical activity [AOR: 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.8); P = 0.006] and decreased by smoking [AOR: 0.4 (95% CI: 0.3, 0.6); P < 0.001] and opium using [AOR: 0.5 (95% CI: 0.4, 0.7); P < 0.001]. Female gender [AOR: 4.1 (95% CI: 3.3, 5); P < 0.001], advanced (AOR > 7 for age groups ≥ 35 years old; P < 0.001) positively, while smoking [AOR: 0.6 (0.4, 0.8); P = 0.004] negatively were the most significant predictors for abnormal WC.


          Our data reveal that overweight and obesity affected almost half of the adult population (43.0%), and central obesity was around 15.0%, which reflect the high prevalence of this abnormality. In addition, several demographic, social and lifestyle factors were associated with obesity. Appropriate interventions and strategies with a concentration of the general population are needed to deal with its potential subsequent consequences.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Global nutrition dynamics: the world is shifting rapidly toward a diet linked with noncommunicable diseases.

          Global energy imbalances and related obesity levels are rapidly increasing. The world is rapidly shifting from a dietary period in which the higher-income countries are dominated by patterns of degenerative diseases (whereas the lower- and middle-income countries are dominated by receding famine) to one in which the world is increasingly being dominated by degenerative diseases. This article documents the high levels of overweight and obesity found across higher- and lower-income countries and the global shift of this burden toward the poor and toward urban and rural populations. Dietary changes appear to be shifting universally toward a diet dominated by higher intakes of animal and partially hydrogenated fats and lower intakes of fiber. Activity patterns at work, at leisure, during travel, and in the home are equally shifting rapidly toward reduced energy expenditure. Large-scale decreases in food prices (eg, beef prices) have increased access to supermarkets, and the urbanization of both urban and rural areas is a key underlying factor. Limited documentation of the extent of the increased effects of the fast food and bottled soft drink industries on this nutrition shift is available, but some examples of the heterogeneity of the underlying changes are presented. The challenge to global health is clear.
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            Consequences of smoking for body weight, body fat distribution, and insulin resistance.

            Our aim was to critically evaluate the relations among smoking, body weight, body fat distribution, and insulin resistance as reported in the literature. In the short term, nicotine increases energy expenditure and could reduce appetite, which may explain why smokers tend to have lower body weight than do nonsmokers and why smoking cessation is frequently followed by weight gain. In contrast, heavy smokers tend to have greater body weight than do light smokers or nonsmokers, which likely reflects a clustering of risky behaviors (eg, low degree of physical activity, poor diet, and smoking) that is conducive to weight gain. Other factors, such as weight cycling, could also be involved. In addition, smoking increases insulin resistance and is associated with central fat accumulation. As a result, smoking increases the risk of metabolic syndrome and diabetes, and these factors increase risk of cardiovascular disease. In the context of the worldwide obesity epidemic and a high prevalence of smoking, the greater risk of (central) obesity and insulin resistance among smokers is a matter of major concern.
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              Smoking cessation and severity of weight gain in a national cohort.

              Many believe that the prospect of weight gain discourages smokers from quitting. Accurate estimates of the weight gain related to the cessation of smoking in the general population are not available, however. We related changes in body weight to changes in smoking status in adults 25 to 74 years of age who were weighed in the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I, 1971 to 1975) and then weighed a second time in the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study (1982 to 1984). The cohort included continuing smokers (748 men and 1137 women) and those who had quit smoking for a year or more (409 men and 359 women). The mean weight gain attributable to the cessation of smoking, as adjusted for age, race, level of education, alcohol use, illnesses related to change in weight, base-line weight, and physical activity, was 2.8 kg in men and 3.8 kg in women. Major weight gain (greater than 13 kg) occurred in 9.8 percent of the men and 13.4 percent of the women who quit smoking. The relative risk of major weight gain in those who quit smoking (as compared with those who continued to smoke) was 8.1 (95 percent confidence interval, 4.4 to 14.9) in men and 5.8 (95 percent confidence interval, 3.7 to 9.1) in women, and it remained high regardless of the duration of cessation. For both sexes, blacks, people under the age of 55, and people who smoked 15 cigarettes or more per day were at higher risk of major weight gain after quitting smoking. Although at base line the smokers weighed less than those who had never smoked, they weighed nearly the same at follow-up. Major weight gain is strongly related to smoking cessation, but it occurs in only a minority of those who stop smoking. Weight gain is not likely to negate the health benefits of smoking cessation, but its cosmetic effects may interfere with attempts to quit. Effective methods of weight control are therefore needed for smokers trying to quit.

                Author and article information

                ARYA Atheroscler
                ARYA Atheroscler
                ARYA Atherosclerosis
                Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
                January 2016
                : 12
                : 1
                : 18-27
                [1 ]Professor, Cardiovascular Research Center, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
                [2 ]Associate Professor, Physiology Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
                [3 ]Assistant Professor, Cardiovascular Research Center, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
                [4 ]Regional Knowledge Hub, and WHO Collaborating Centre for HIV Surveillance, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
                [5 ]Researcher, Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
                [6 ]Global Health Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
                Author notes
                Gholamreza Yousefzadeh, Email: dryousefzadeh@
                © 2016 Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center & Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.

                Original Article


                risk factors, iran, body mass index, central obesity, obesity, overweight


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