Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease of unknown cause that is characterised by the formation
of immune granulomas in various organs, mainly the lungs and the lymphatic system.
Studies show that sarcoidosis might be the result of an exaggerated granulomatous
reaction after exposure to unidentified antigens in individuals who are genetically
susceptible. Several new insights have been made, particularly with regards to the
diagnosis and care of some important manifestations of sarcoidosis. The indications
for endobronchial ultrasound in diagnosis and for PET in the assessment of inflammatory
activity are now better specified. Recognition of unexplained persistent disabling
symptoms, fatigue, small-fibre neurological impairment, cognitive failure, and changes
to health state and quality of life, has improved. Mortality in patients with sarcoidosis
is higher than that of the general population, mainly due to pulmonary fibrosis. Predicted
advances for the future are finding the cause of sarcoidosis, and the elucidation
of relevant biomarkers, reliable endpoints, and new efficient treatments, particularly
in patients with refractory sarcoidosis, lung fibrosis, and those with persistent
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