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      Tissue Doppler Velocity Is Not Totally Preload-Independent: A Study in a Uremic Population after Hemodialysis

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          Abstract

          Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of regional tissue Doppler velocity after volume removal following regular hemodialysis (HD) in uremic patients. Is tissue Doppler velocity really preload-independent? Background: Diastolic dysfunction was divided into four stages: normal pattern, abnormal relaxation pattern, pseudonormalization pattern, and restrictive pattern. Pulse wave Doppler and color Doppler echocardiography were important diagnostic tools for these forms of diastolic dysfunction. However, they were preload-dependent and sometimes there was confusion between the normal pattern and the pseudonormalization pattern. Tissue Doppler echocardiography was promising for problems in diastolic dysfunction and appeared to be preload-independent. However, there are still some disputes over this point. Methods: Ninety-three uremic patients receiving regular HD were included in the study. There were 45 males and 48 females aged 59 ± 14 years. The mean volume removed after HD was 2.3 ± 0.9 kg. The mean heart rates before and after HD were 77 ± 11 and 76 ± 12 beats per minute, respectively (p = 0.73). All patients received complete transthoracic echocardiography examinations before and after HD. The studies included cardiac chamber size, left ventricular systolic performance, pulse wave Doppler echocardiographic data of mitral inflow and the right upper pulmonary vein including peak velocity of early diastolic E wave, E wave time velocity integral (TVI-E), peak velocity of late diastolic A wave, A wave TVI, systolic phase of pulmonary vein (S wave TVI), early diastolic phase of pulmonary vein (D wave TVI) and atrial contraction phase of pulmonary vein (Ar wave TVI). Pulsed tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE) was performed and a 4-mm sample volume was placed at the 6 corners of the mitral annulus including septal, lateral, anterior, inferior, anteroseptal and posterior corners. Five to ten cardiac cycles were recorded and the data were averaged. Measurements performed included peak velocity of systolic phase (Sa), early diastolic phase (Ea), late diastolic phase (Aa), Ea/Aa ratio and time from the beginning of electrocardiogram Q wave to the beginning of Sa (Q-Sa time). The same measurements were repeated after HD. Results: After HD, left atrium diameter and left ventricular internal dimensions at end diastole became smaller. There were significant reductions for mitral peak E wave velocity, TVI-E, peak A wave velocity and E/A ratio. As for the pulmonary vein, systolic phase of pulmonary vein and early diastolic phase of pulmonary vein decreased significantly. Peak Ar wave did not change significantly. For TDE, Sa and Aa did not change but Ea did decrease. Conclusion: After HD, there is a significant reduction of intravascular effective volume. No significant change is found for myocardial peak systolic velocity and peak late diastolic velocity. However, there is a significant reduction of myocardial early diastolic phase peak velocity. This suggests that TDE is not completely preload-independent; at least, it is phase-dependent within each cardiac cycle.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Relation of transmitral flow velocity patterns to left ventricular diastolic function: new insights from a combined hemodynamic and Doppler echocardiographic study.

          In an effort to determine what clinically useful information regarding left ventricular diastolic function can be inferred noninvasively with pulsed wave Doppler echocardiography, mitral flow velocity patterns and measured variables were correlated with hemodynamic findings in 70 patients: 30 with coronary artery disease, 20 with idiopathic congestive cardiomyopathy, 14 with a restrictive myocardial process and 6 without significant cardiac disease. The effect of sudden changes in hemodynamics on the mitral flow velocity pattern was also investigated in a subgroup of patients who had simultaneous recording of mitral flow velocity and left ventricular pressure before and after left ventriculography. Mitral flow velocity recordings from 30 healthy adults served as a reference group. This analysis suggests that 1) the majority of patients with these cardiac disorders demonstrate abnormal mitral flow velocity patterns or variables; 2) markedly different flow velocity patterns can be seen in patients with impaired left ventricular relaxation; 3) the different mitral patterns appear to relate more to myocardial function and hemodynamic status than to the type of disease process present; 4) certain mitral patterns suggest different filling pressures and rates of early diastolic left ventricular filling; 5) an increase in left atrial pressure can "normalize" an abnormal mitral flow velocity pattern and "mask" a left ventricular relaxation abnormality; and 6) the different patterns appear to represent a dynamic continuum with the potential to change from one to another as a result of disease progression, medical therapy or sudden changes in hemodynamics. It is concluded that, despite the indirect method of estimation and certain limitations, mitral flow velocity recordings have clinical potential in assessing left ventricular diastolic function that merits further investigation.
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            An index of early left ventricular filling that combined with pulsed Doppler peak E velocity may estimate capillary wedge pressure.

            This study sought to determine the applicability of the combined information obtained from transmitral Doppler flow and color M-mode Doppler flow propagation velocities for estimating pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. Although Doppler-derived measurements of left ventricular (LV) filling have been applied to determine left atrial pressure, their accuracy has been limited by the variable effect of ventricular relaxation in these indexes. Recently, flow propagation velocity measured by color M-mode Doppler echocardiography has been suggested as an index of ventricular relaxation. We studied 45 patients admitted to the intensive care unit who underwent invasive hemodynamic monitoring. We measured peak early (E) and late (A) transmitral Doppler velocities, E/A ratio and flow propagation velocity (vp) and compared them by linear regression with pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (pw). We found a modest positive correlation between pw and E (r = 0.62, p < 0.001) and the E/A ratio (r = 0.52, p < 0.001) and a negative correlation between pw and vp (r = -0.34, p = 0.02). By stepwise linear regression, only E and vp were statistically significant predictors of pw. However, the E/vp ratio provided the best estimate of pw (r = 0.80, p < 0.001; pw = 5.27 x [E/vp] + 4.6, SEE 3.1 mm Hg). The ratio of component velocity (E) over the color M-mode propagation velocity during early LV filling, by correcting for the effect of LV relaxation, provides a better estimate of pw than standard measurements of transmitral Doppler flow.
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              Utility of preload alteration in assessment of left ventricular filling pressure by Doppler echocardiography: a simultaneous catheterization and Doppler echocardiographic study.

              The aim of this study was to demonstrate the usefulness of preload alterations in assessing left ventricular filling pressures with transmitral Doppler velocity curves. Doppler mitral inflow velocities, used to estimate left ventricular filling pressures noninvasively, are limited in predicting left ventricular filling pressures, especially in patients with normal systolic function and a "pseudonormal" mitral filling pattern. Forty-nine patients were studied in the cardiac catheterization laboratory with simultaneous Doppler echocardiography using high fidelity catheters to compare left ventricular diastolic filling pressures (pre-A wave left ventricular pressure) and Doppler mitral inflow at baseline and during reduction of preload during the strain phase of the Valsalva maneuver (n = 27) or sublingual nitroglycerin (n = 36), or both (n = 14). Doppler measurements consisted of E (initial peak velocity), A (velocity at atrial contraction), deceleration time (time from E velocity to deceleration of flow extrapolated to baseline) and absolute A wave velocity (A' [peak A wave velocity minus velocity at onset of atrial contraction]). In patients with high pre-A wave pressure (> or 15 mm Hg), there was a greater change in the E/A' ratio during the Valsalva maneuver than in patients with a normal pre-A wave pressure (-1.22 +/- 1.1 vs. -0.35 +/- 0.17; p = 0.02). A similar change was seen when comparing the change in the E/A' ratio after administration of nitroglycerin in patients with a high versus a normal pre-A wave pressure (0.81 +/- 0.49 vs. 0.18 +/- 0.17; p < 0.001). These differences were present in patients with a normal E/A ratio at baseline. Alterations in preload during assessment of Doppler echocardiographic indexes may be useful in noninvasively assessing left ventricular filling pressures.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2007
                May 2007
                19 February 2007
                : 107
                : 4
                : 415-421
                Affiliations
                Division of Cardiology, Internal Medicine Department, Center of Cardiovascular Disease, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, and National Yang-Ming University, School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC
                Article
                99652 Cardiology 2007;107:415–421
                10.1159/000099652
                17310115
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, References: 37, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Research

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