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      Increased IL-6 in Supernatant of Rat Mesangial Cell Cultures Treated with Erythrogenic Toxin Type B and Its Precursor Isolated from Nephritogenic Streptococci

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          Background/Aims: Previous reports have shown the presence of streptococcal erythrogenic toxin type B (ETB), IL-8, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and glomerular proliferation in renal biopsies from patients with acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN). In addition, increased levels of plasma IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and urinary IL-6 have also been reported in this disease. To determine the effect of ETB in mesangial cell cytokine production and proliferation, the concentration of several cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, TNFα, IL-10, IL-4, RANTES), soluble TNF receptor I (STNFR-I), soluble TNF receptor II (STNFR-II) and proliferation were measured in rat mesangial cells cultures after treatment with ETB or its precursor (ETBP). Methods: To analyze the levels of cytokines and production of soluble receptors as well as proliferation, rat mesangial cells were cultured with ETB or ETBP (50 µg/ml). After 24, 48 and 96 h of incubation, culture supernatants were assessed for cytokines and receptors by ELISA and for proliferation by incorporation of radioactive thymidine. Results: A significant increase in IL-6 levels was found in mesangial cell cultures treated with either ETBP or ETB when compared with controls. Streptococcal proteins treated mesangial cells also showed elevated levels of proliferation at 96 h. Increased production of IL-6 was not correlated with proliferation. A polyclonal anti-ETB antibody abolished the IL-6 stimulatory effect of ETB on mesangial cells. ETB/ETBP failed to increase the levels of other cytokines and cytokine soluble receptors. Conclusion: Streptococcal ETB/ETBP is capable of inducing increased production of IL-6 and proliferation on mesangial cells. These findings could be relevant in a possible early interaction of streptococcal proteins with mesangial cells and during the course of APSGN.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Complementary DNA for a novel human interleukin (BSF-2) that induces B lymphocytes to produce immunoglobulin.

          When stimulated with antigen, B cells are influenced by T cells to proliferate and differentiate into antibody-forming cells. Since it was reported that soluble factors could replace certain functions of helper T cells in the antibody response, several different kinds of lymphokines and monokines have been reported in B-cell growth and differentiation. Among these, human B-cell differentiation factor (BCDF or BSF-2) has been shown to induce the final maturation of B cells into immunoglobulin-secreting cells. BSF-2 was purified to homogeneity and its partial NH2-terminal amino-acid sequence was determined. These studies indicated that BSF-2 is functionally and structurally unlike other known proteins. Here, we report the molecular cloning, structural analysis and functional expression of the cDNA encoding human BSF-2. The primary sequence of BSF-2 deduced from the cDNA reveals that BSF-2 is a novel interleukin consisting of 184 amino acids.
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            Endogenous interleukin-6 enhances the renal injury, dysfunction, and inflammation caused by ischemia/reperfusion.

            Here, we investigate the effects of renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) on the degree of renal injury, dysfunction, and inflammation in interleukin (IL)-6 knockout (IL-6(-/-)) mice and mice administered a monoclonal antibody against IL-6. IL-6(-/-) mice were subjected to bilateral renal artery occlusion (30 min) and reperfusion (24 h). At the end of experiments, indicators and markers of renal dysfunction, injury, and inflammation were measured. Kidneys were used for histological evaluation of renal injury. Renal expression of the adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and P-selectin, as well as nitration of proteins in the kidney, were determined using immunohistochemistry. In addition, wild-type mice were pretreated (24 and 1 h before ischemia) with an IL-6 antibody to mimic the effects that would be seen in IL-6(-/-) mice. IL-6(-/-) mice and wild-type mice administered the IL-6 antibody demonstrated significantly reduced plasma urea and creatinine levels, indicating reduction of renal dysfunction caused by I/R. Neutrophil infiltration was also significantly reduced in IL-6(-/-) mice and wild-type mice administered the IL-6 antibody subjected to renal I/R. Proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-1beta) in renal tissues were significantly attenuated in IL-6(-/-) mice to levels seen in wild-type mice. IL-6(-/-) mice demonstrated reduced histological evidence of tubular injury and markedly reduced immunohistochemical evidence of ICAM-1, P-selectin, and nitrotyrosine when subjected to renal I/R. We propose that endogenous IL-6 enhances the degree of renal injury, dysfunction, and inflammation caused by I/R of the kidney by promoting the expression of adhesion molecules and subsequent oxidative and nitrosative stress.
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              In situ hybridization of interleukin 6 in diabetic nephropathy.

              Increased mesangial expansion is one of the most characteristic histological changes in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Although the pathogenesis of DN remains unclear, recent studies associate interleukin (IL) 6 with mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis. To elucidate the expression and localization of IL-6 mRNA in renal tissues of patients with DN, a high-resolution in situ hybridization using digoxigenin-labeled oligonucleotide was performed. Patients were divided into three groups based on light microscopy findings: mild (group 1), moderate (group 2), and severe (group 3) mesangial expansion. The relationship between the expression of IL-6 mRNA and the degree of glomerular mesangial expansion in DN was examined. Individual cells positive for IL-6 mRNA were observed in glomeruli. These cells were mesangial cells, glomerular epithelial cells, and Bowman's capsule. The signal intensity was strongest in tissues from group 2 but was weak in those from groups 1 and 3. Most cells in the area of mesangial proliferation were strongly stained for IL-6 mRNA, and few positive cells were found in the Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodular lesion. In the interstitium, some tubules, particularly atrophic tubules, and some infiltrating cells were positively stained for IL-6 mRNA. The interstitial expression of IL-6 mRNA correlated significantly with the degree of interstitial injury and was remarkable in tissues from groups 2 and 3. We conclude that IL-6 mRNA is expressed by glomerular resident cells and interstitial cells in the renal tissue of patients with DN and that its expression may be associated with mesangial proliferation and may be involved in the tissue injury of DN.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                April 2006
                05 April 2006
                : 26
                : 1
                : 75-81
                aCatedra de Inmunologia, Escuela de Bioanalisis, Facultad de Medicina, bInstituto de Investigaciones Odontologicas, Facultad de Odontologia, y cInstituto de Investigaciones Clinicas ‘Dr. Americo Negrette’, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo, Venezuela
                91955 Am J Nephrol 2006;26:75–81
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, References: 38, Pages: 7
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                Original Report: Laboratory Investigation


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