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      Ionic Liquid Aqueous Two-Phase Systems for the Enhanced Paper-Based Detection of Transferrin and Escherichia coli

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          Abstract

          Aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) have been widely utilized for liquid-liquid extraction and purification of biomolecules, with some studies also demonstrating their capacity as a biomarker concentration technique for use in diagnostic settings. As the limited polarity range of conventional polymer-based ATPSs can restrict their use, ionic liquid (IL)-based ATPSs have been recently proposed as a promising alternative to polymer-based ATPSs, since ILs are regarded as tunable solvents with excellent solvation capabilities for a variety of natural compounds and proteins. This study demonstrates the first application of IL ATPSs to point-of-care diagnostics. ATPSs consisting of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF 4]) and sodium phosphate salt were utilized to quickly concentrate biomarkers prior to detection using the lateral-flow immunoassay (LFA). We found the phase separation speed of the IL ATPS to be very rapid and a significant improvement upon the separation speed of both polymer-salt and micellar ATPSs. This system was successfully applied to both sandwich and competitive LFA formats and enhanced the detection of both Escherichia coli bacteria and the transferrin protein up to 8- and 20-fold, respectively. This system's compatibility with a broad range of biomolecules, rapid phase separation speed, and tunability suggest wide applicability for a large range of different antigens and biomarkers.

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          Most cited references27

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          Dialkylimidazolium chloroaluminate melts: a new class of room-temperature ionic liquids for electrochemistry, spectroscopy and synthesis

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            Controlling the aqueous miscibility of ionic liquids: aqueous biphasic systems of water-miscible ionic liquids and water-structuring salts for recycle, metathesis, and separations.

            Hydrophilic ionic liquids can be salted-out and concentrated from aqueous solution upon addition of kosmotropic salts forming aqueous biphasic systems as illustrated by the phase behavior of mixtures of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4mim]Cl) and K3PO4.
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              Aqueous two-phase system (ATPS): an overview and advances in its applications

              Aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) is a liquid-liquid fractionation technique and has gained an interest because of great potential for the extraction, separation, purification and enrichment of proteins, membranes, viruses, enzymes, nucleic acids and other biomolecules both in industry and academia. Although, the partition behavior involved in the method is complex and difficult to predict. Current research shows that it has also been successfully used in the detection of veterinary drug residues in food, separation of precious metals, sewage treatment and a variety of other purposes. The ATPS is able to give high recovery yield and is easily to scale up. It is also very economic and environment friendly method. The aim of this review is to overview the basics of ATPS, optimization and its applications.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Chem
                Front Chem
                Front. Chem.
                Frontiers in Chemistry
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                2296-2646
                16 October 2018
                2018
                : 6
                : 486
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Kamei Laboratory, UCLA, Department of Bioengineering , Los Angeles, CA, United States
                [2] 2Wu Laboratory, UCLA, Department of Bioengineering , Los Angeles, CA, United States
                Author notes

                Edited by: John Paul Frampton, Dalhousie University, Canada

                Reviewed by: Ugur Tamer, Gazi University, Turkey; Grant Bruce Webber, University of Newcastle, Australia

                *Correspondence: Daniel T. Kamei kamei@ 123456seas.ucla.edu

                This article was submitted to Chemical Engineering, a section of the journal Frontiers in Chemistry

                Article
                10.3389/fchem.2018.00486
                6198035
                6ced5682-9232-4139-8efa-8c96ad325b0f
                Copyright © 2018 Yee, Emmel, Yang, Lee, Paek, Wu and Kamei.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 30 May 2018
                : 24 September 2018
                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 28, Pages: 10, Words: 7290
                Funding
                Funded by: National Institutes of Health 10.13039/100000002
                Award ID: 1R44AI127060-01A1
                Categories
                Chemistry
                Original Research

                ionic liquid,aqueous two-phase systems,lateral-flow immunoassay,transferrin,escherichia coli

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