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      Biomimetic Gold Nanoshell-Loaded Macrophage for Photothermal Biomedicine

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          Abstract

          The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of photothermal treatment (PTT) with gold nanoshell (ANS) using a macrophage-mediated delivery system in a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell line. To achieve this, ANS-loaded rat macrophages (ANS-MAs) were prepared via the coculture method with ANS. The human HNSCC (FaDu cell) and macrophage (rat macrophage; NR8383 cell) hybrid spheroid models were generated by the centrifugation method to determine the possibility of using ANS-MAs as a cancer therapy. These ANS-MAs were set into the tumor and macrophage hybrid spheroid model to measure PTT efficacy. Kinetic analysis of the spheroid growth pattern revealed that this PTT process caused a decreasing pattern in the volume of the hybrid model containing ANS-MAs ( p < 0.001). Comparison with empty macrophages showed harmony between ANS and laser irradiation for the generation of PTT. An annexin V/dead cell marker assay indicated that the PTT-treated hybrid model induced increasing apoptosis and dead cells. Further studies on the toxicity of ANS-MAs are needed to reveal whether it can be considered biocompatible. In summary, the ANS was prepared with a macrophage as the delivery method and protective carrier. The ANS was successfully localized to the macrophages, and their photoabsorption property was stationary. This strategy showed significant growth inhibition of the tumor and macrophage spheroid model under NIR laser irradiation. In vivo toxicology results suggest that ANS-MA is a promising candidate for a biocompatible strategy to overcome the limitations of fabricated nanomaterials. This ANS-MA delivery and PTT strategy may potentially lead to improvements in the quality of life of patients with HNSCC by providing a biocompatible, minimally invasive modality for cancer treatment.

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          Most cited references36

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          Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance.

          Metal nanoshells are a class of nanoparticles with tunable optical resonances. In this article, an application of this technology to thermal ablative therapy for cancer is described. By tuning the nanoshells to strongly absorb light in the near infrared, where optical transmission through tissue is optimal, a distribution of nanoshells at depth in tissue can be used to deliver a therapeutic dose of heat by using moderately low exposures of extracorporeally applied near-infrared (NIR) light. Human breast carcinoma cells incubated with nanoshells in vitro were found to have undergone photothermally induced morbidity on exposure to NIR light (820 nm, 35 W/cm2), as determined by using a fluorescent viability stain. Cells without nanoshells displayed no loss in viability after the same periods and conditions of NIR illumination. Likewise, in vivo studies under magnetic resonance guidance revealed that exposure to low doses of NIR light (820 nm, 4 W/cm2) in solid tumors treated with metal nanoshells reached average maximum temperatures capable of inducing irreversible tissue damage (DeltaT = 37.4 +/- 6.6 degrees C) within 4-6 min. Controls treated without nanoshells demonstrated significantly lower average temperatures on exposure to NIR light (DeltaT < 10 degrees C). These findings demonstrated good correlation with histological findings. Tissues heated above the thermal damage threshold displayed coagulation, cell shrinkage, and loss of nuclear staining, which are indicators of irreversible thermal damage. Control tissues appeared undamaged.
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            Biodistribution of colloidal gold nanoparticles after intravenous administration: effect of particle size.

            Purpose of the present research work was to evaluate the biological distribution of differently size gold nanoparticles (NP) up on intravenous administration in mice. Another objective was to study effect of particle size on biological distribution of gold NP to enable their diverse applications in nanotechnology. Gold NP of different particle sizes, mainly 15, 50, 100 and 200 nm, were synthesized by modifying citrate ion concentration. Synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized by SEM and their size distribution was studied by particle size analyzer. Gold NP was suspended in sodium alginate solution (0.5%, w/v) and administered to mice (1g/kg, intravenously) [n=3]. After 24h of administration of gold NP, blood was collected under light ether anesthesia, mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and various tissues/organs were removed. The tissues were then washed with saline, homogenized and lysed with aqua regia. The determination of gold in samples was carried out quantitatively by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). SEM study revealed spherical morphology of gold NP with narrow particle size distribution. Biodistribution study revealed gold NPs of all sizes were mainly accumulated in organs like liver, lung and spleen. The accumulation of gold NP in various tissues was found to be depending on particle size. 15 nm gold NP revealed higher amount of gold and number of particles in all the tissues including blood, liver, lung, spleen, kidney, brain, heart, stomach. Interestingly, 15 and 50 nm gold NP were able to pass blood-brain barrier as evident from gold concentration in brain. Two-hundred nanometers gold NP showed very minute presence in organs including blood, brain, stomach and pancreas. The results revealed that tissue distribution of gold nanoparticles is size-dependent with the smallest 15 nm nanoparticles showing the most widespread organ distribution.
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              Recent biomedical applications of gold nanoparticles: A review

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Biomed Res Int
                Biomed Res Int
                BMRI
                BioMed Research International
                Hindawi
                2314-6133
                2314-6141
                2020
                14 April 2020
                : 2020
                Affiliations
                1Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon 24252, Republic of Korea
                2Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju 27469, Republic of Korea
                3Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Hallym University, Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, 7, Keunjaebong-gil, Hwaseong-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea 18450
                4Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju 61469, Republic of Korea
                5Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan, Republic of Korea
                6Department of Pathology, Hallym University, Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, 7, Keunjaebong-gil, Hwaseong-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea 18450
                7Department of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Nevada, Las Vegas 4505 S. Maryland Pkwy, Las Vegas, NV 89154-3037, USA
                8Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine 1002 Health Sciences Rd, Irvine, CA 92617, USA
                Author notes

                Guest Editor: Bo Li

                Article
                10.1155/2020/5869235
                7178525
                6cf4d118-c920-4b2b-8d8d-0263d8d768b4
                Copyright © 2020 Sung Hun Kang et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Kangbuk Samsung Hospital
                Funded by: Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning
                Award ID: 2018R1C1B6008596
                Award ID: 2015R1C1A1A02037328
                Funded by: National Research Foundation of Korea
                Categories
                Research Article

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