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      Heminephrectomy Causes the Progression of Glomerulosclerosis and Apoptosis in High IgA Strain ddY Mice

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          Background: The reduction in nephrons in IgA nephropathy is critical to the prognosis of this disease. However, the immunopathological mechanism of the modifications seen in glomerular lesions is not clear. We thus investigated the influence of nephron reduction by heminephrectomy on renal lesions in a high immunoglobulin A inbred strain of ddY mouse (HIGA mouse), which shows progressive mesangial sclerosis with elevated renal expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. Methods: Five-week-old HIGA mice were heminephrectomized (Nx), and were evaluated in comparison with a sham-operated group (S) at 40 weeks old. Histological findings, immunoglobulin depositions (IgG, IgA, and IgM), and expressions of cytokine and extracellular matrix proteins (TGF-β, fibronectin, collagen type I and IV) were analysed. PCNA and TUNEL stainings were performed with electron microscopic detection of apoptosis. Tissue renin-angiotensin systems (RAS) were also investigated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Results: In the Nx group, the glomerular tuft area and ratio of mesangial matrix area per tuft were significantly increased, and the glomerular cell count per tuft area was significantly decreased. Glomerular immunoglobulin deposits of IgG, IgA, and IgM in Nx were all significantly expanded in the paramesangium. The glomerular expressions of TGF-β and the extracellular matrix proteins were significantly increased in Nx mice. In contrast to the significant decrease of PCNA-positive cells, TUNEL-positive cells were significantly increased in Nx. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) was significantly increased in the renal cortex of Nx. Conclusion: Simple heminephrectomy, other than 5/6 renal ablation, of HIGA mice may be a potential model for research into the progressive glomerulosclerosis of human IgA nephropathy. The pathological role of apoptosis is apparently involved in these disease processes, possibly through upregulated RAS.

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          Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction.

          A new method of total RNA isolation by a single extraction with an acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform mixture is described. The method provides a pure preparation of undegraded RNA in high yield and can be completed within 4 h. It is particularly useful for processing large numbers of samples and for isolation of RNA from minute quantities of cells or tissue samples.
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            Long-term prevention of renal insufficiency, excess matrix gene expression, and glomerular mesangial matrix expansion by treatment with monoclonal antitransforming growth factor-beta antibody in db/db diabetic mice.

            Emerging evidence suggests that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is an important mediator of diabetic nephropathy. We showed previously that short-term treatment with a neutralizing monoclonal anti-TGF-beta antibody (alphaT) in streptozotocin-diabetic mice prevents early changes of renal hypertrophy and increased matrix mRNA. To establish that overactivity of the renal TGF-beta system mediates the functional and structural changes of the more advanced stages of nephropathy, we tested whether chronic administration of alphaT prevents renal insufficiency and glomerulosclerosis in the db/db mouse, a model of type 2 diabetes that develops overt nephropathy. Diabetic db/db mice and nondiabetic db/m littermates were treated intraperitoneally with alphaT or control IgG, 300 microgram three times per week for 8 wk. Treatment with alphaT, but not with IgG, significantly decreased the plasma TGF-beta1 concentration without decreasing the plasma glucose concentration. The IgG-treated db/db mice developed albuminuria, renal insufficiency, and glomerular mesangial matrix expansion associated with increased renal mRNAs encoding alpha1(IV) collagen and fibronectin. On the other hand, treatment with alphaT completely prevented the increase in plasma creatinine concentration, the decrease in urinary creatinine clearance, and the expansion of mesangial matrix in db/db mice. The increase in renal matrix mRNAs was substantially attenuated, but the excretion of urinary albumin factored for creatinine clearance was not significantly affected by alphaT treatment. We conclude that chronic inhibition of the biologic actions of TGF-beta with a neutralizing monoclonal antibody in db/db mice prevents the glomerulosclerosis and renal insufficiency resulting from type 2 diabetes.
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              Akt/Protein Kinase B Up-regulates Bcl-2 Expression through cAMP-response Element-binding Protein


                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                October 2002
                02 September 2002
                : 92
                : 2
                : 389-398
                aNephrology Division, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, and bResearch Laboratories, Nippon Shinyaku Co. Ltd., Kyoto; cDepartment of Clinical and Laboratory Medicine, Fukui Medical University, Fukui, Japan
                63321 Nephron 2002;92:389–398
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 8, Tables: 4, References: 34, Pages: 10
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