Objective The development status and characteristics of height and weight of Japanese, Han and Mongolian students aged 7-18 years in Inner Mongolia in 2014 were analyzed, to explore the ethnic differences in the maximum growth age of height and weight.
Methods The height and weight data of Chinese Han nationality and Mongolian students were from the "2014 survey on the physical fitness and health of students in Inner Mongolia autonomous region". Data on Japanese students were obtained from the "statistical information of the Heisei 26 annual sports survey" of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology-Japan. The total increase in height and weight, the average increase in height and weight, and the maximum age of growth were calculated, and the ethnic differences of each index were examined.
Results The average height of Han urban boys was 3.02 and 4.09 cm higher than that of Mongolian and Japanese, the height of Han urban girls was 2.34 and 3.99 cm higher respectively. The average height of boys and girls in rural areas of the Han nationality was 1.26 and 1.69 cm higher than that in Japanese ( P< 0.05). The average weight of urban Han boys was 2.36 and 5.92 kg higher than that of Mongolian and Japanese, Mongolian was 3.55 kg higher than Japanese. The average weight of Han and Mongolian urban girls was 4.12 and 3.99 kg higher than that of Japanese. The average weight of Han and Mongolian boys in rural areas was 2.48 and 1.55 kg higher than that in Japan. The weight of girls in the Han and Mongolian in rural was 1.53 and 2.24 kg higher than that in Japan respectively ( P<0.05). Among the three ethnic groups, urban han boys (10.52 years old), urban Japanese girls (9.69 years old), rural Japanese boys (11.51 years old) and rural Japanese girls (9.71 years old) appeared earlier than other ethnic groups in the maximum growth age of height. In terms of maximum growth age of weight, Han urban boys (10.33 years old), Japanese urban girls (9.62 years old) and Japanese rural boys (11.44 years old) appeared the earliest in three nationality, and the maximum growth age of weight in the three ethnic rural girls (10.31–10.80) was basically the same.
Conclusion Han and Mongolian students at the age of 7-18 years were obviously superior to Japanese students in terms of growth and development level of height and weight. The maximum growth age of height and weight of urban Han boys was 1.07 and 1.16 years earlier than that of Japanese, while that of rural Han boys was 0.90 and 0.96 years later. And maximum growth age of height and weight of rural Han girls was about 0.49-0.80 year later than that of Japanese.
【摘要】 目的 分析内蒙古自治区城乡 7〜18 岁汉族、蒙古族和日本学生身高、体重发育现状与差异, 为民族体质人 类学研究提供基础资料。 方法 内蒙古自治区汉族和蒙古族学生身高、体重数据来自《 2014 年内蒙古自治区学生体质与 健康调查研究》, 日本学生数据来源于日本文部科学省“平成 26 年度体育与运动调查统计情报”, 计算身高和体重总增长 量、平均增长量及最大发育年龄, 检验各项指标的民族差异。 结果 身高方面, 汉族城市男生身高平均高出蒙古族和曰本 3.02 和 4.09 cm, 汉族城市女生分别高出 2.34 和 3.99 cm;汉族乡村男女生身高平均高出日本 1.26 和 1.69 cm, 差异均有统计 学意义 ( P 值均<0.05)。体重方面, 城市汉族男生体重平均高出蒙古族和日本 2.36 和 5.92 kg, 蒙古族比日本高出 3.55 kg, 汉族和蒙古族城市女生平均高出日本 4.12 和 3.99 kg;汉族和蒙古族乡村男生平均高出日本 2.48 和 1.55 kg, 汉族和蒙古族 乡村女生分别比日本高出 1.53和2.24 kg, 差异均有统计学意义( P 值均<0.05)。身高最大发育年龄为汉族城市男生 10.52 岁、曰本城市女生 9.69 岁、曰本乡村男生 11.51 岁和曰本乡村女生 9.71 岁; 体重最大发育年龄为汉族城市男生 10.33 岁、曰 本城市女生 9.62 岁、日本乡村男生 11.44 岁, 3 个民族乡村女生体重最大发育年龄 (10.31〜10.80岁) 基本一致。 结论 内 蒙古自治区 7〜18 岁城乡汉族和蒙古族学生身高和体重生长发育水平明显高于日本学生。城市汉族男生身高和体重最大 发育年龄分别比日本提前 1.07 和 1.16 年, 乡村汉族男生则晚 0.90 和 0.96 年;城乡汉族女生身高和体重最大发育年龄比日 本晚 0.49〜0.80 年。