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      A Review of the Treatment Guidelines on the Management of Low Levels of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol

      review-article

      , , , ,

      Cardiology

      S. Karger AG

      Dyslipidemia, Lipoproteins

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          Abstract

          This paper aims to review the guidelines on the importance given to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as a risk factor or as threshold and target level in the treatment of dyslipidemia. We developed a strategy with cholesterol-related key words to search for guidelines in the major databases. The Appraisal of Guidelines Research Evaluation (AGREE) instrument was used for the evaluation and inclusion of the guidelines. In total nine guidelines were selected. Almost all selected guidelines consider low HDL-C as a marker of an increased risk for coronary heart disease. However, only few guidelines use the level of HDL-C as a threshold or target level for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The guidelines provide only little information on the management of patients with treatment-induced low HDL-C. Instead of using total cholesterol (TC) or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) we consider the use of the ratios of TC to HDL-C or LDL-C to HDL-C as a threshold as well as a target for treatment.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Incidence of coronary heart disease and lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The Framingham Study.

          The first report from the Framingham Study that demonstrated an inverse relationship between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) was based on four years of surveillance. These participants, aged 49 to 82 years, have now been followed up for 12 years, and this report shows that the relationship between the fasting HDL-C level and subsequent incidence of CHD does not diminish appreciably with time. Since a second measurement of HDL-C is available eight years after the initial determination, the relationship of HDL-C measurements on the same subjects at two points in time is examined. This second HDL-C measurement is also used in a multivariate model that includes cigarette smoking, relative weight, alcohol consumption, casual blood glucose, total cholesterol, and blood pressure. It is concluded that even after these adjustments, nonfasting HDL-C and total cholesterol levels are related to development of CHD in both men and women aged 49 years and older. Study participants at the 80th percentile of HDL-C were found to have half the risk of CHD developing when compared with subjects at the 20th percentile of HDL-C.
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            Randomised trial of cholesterol lowering in 4444 patients with coronary heart disease: the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S)

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              High-density lipoprotein cholesterol as a predictor of coronary heart disease risk. The PROCAM experience and pathophysiological implications for reverse cholesterol transport.

              The incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) was assessed via the Prospective Cardiovascular Münster (PROCAM) study in 19,698 volunteer subjects aged between 16 and 65 years. An adequate incidence of atherosclerotic CHD was only found in male subjects greater than 40 years of age. The analysis and subsequent 6 year follow-up period was, therefore, confined to 4559 male participants aged 40-64 years. In the follow-up period, 186 study participants developed atherosclerotic CHD (134 definite non-fatal myocardial infarctions (MIs) and 52 definite atherosclerotic CHD deaths including 21 sudden cardiac deaths and 31 fatal MIs). Univariate analysis revealed a significant association between the incidence of atherosclerotic CHD and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.001), which remained after adjustment for other risk factors.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2004
                July 2004
                09 July 2004
                : 102
                : 2
                : 61-66
                Affiliations
                Department of General Practice, University of Brussels, Brussels, Belgium
                Article
                77906 Cardiology 2004;102:61–66
                10.1159/000077906
                15103174
                6d13718c-293d-4435-89b5-181ada1d63e2
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 2, References: 39, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Review

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