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      Prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods on wild animals and cattle in the Las Merindades area (Burgos, Spain) Translated title: Prévalence des arthropodes ectoparasites sur les animaux sauvages et le bétail dans la région de Las Merindades (Burgos, Espagne)

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          This paper reports the prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods in sampled groups of wild (n = 128; 16 species) and domestic (n = 69; 3 species) animals in the Las Merindades area of the Province of Burgos, Spain. The study revealed that wild animals were more infested and with a wider variety of ectoparasites than domestic animals. The parasitic prevalence was 67% for wild animals and 48% for livestock. In this way, 39% of animals were infected by ticks. Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes hexagonus were the most prevalent species whereas Dermacentor reticulatus showed affinity for the fox and wolf. The overall prevalence of parasitisation by fleas was 27%. Ctenophthalmus spp. showed the wider range host in wild animals, while Pulex irritans was the most frequent specie found. The parasitic prevalences by lice ( Trichodectes melis, Trichodectes canis and Trichodectes mustelae) and by mite ( Neotrombicula spp., Laelaps agilis and Sarcoptes scabiei) were 4% and 12%, respectively. In both cases only wild animals were found parasited.

          Translated abstract

          Cet article présente la prévalence des arthropodes ectoparasites dans des échantillons d’animaux sauvages (n = 128 ; 16 espèces) et domestiques (n = 69 ; 3 espèces) dans la région de Las Merindades de la province de Burgos, en Espagne. L’étude a révélé que les mammifères sauvages ont été plus infestés et ont été touchés par une plus grande variété d’ectoparasites que les animaux domestiques. La prévalence parasitaire a été de 67 % pour les animaux sauvages et 48 % pour le bétail. Ainsi, 39 % de tous les animaux ont été infectés par les tiques. Ixodes ricinus et Ixodes hexagonus ont été les espèces les plus répandues, alors que Dermacentor reticulatus a montré une affinité pour le renard et le loup. La prévalence globale du parasitisme par les puces a été de 27 %. Ctenophtalmus spp a montré la plus large gamme d’hôtes chez les animaux sauvages, tandis que Pulex irritans a été l’espèce la plus fréquemment trouvée. Les prévalences parasitaires par les poux ( Trichodectes melis, Trichodectes canis et Trichodectes mustelae) et par les acariens ( Neotrombicula spp., Laelaps agilis et Sarcoptes scabiei) ont été de 4 % et 12 %, respectivement. Dans les deux cas, seuls les animaux sauvages ont été trouvés parasités.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases.

           S. S. Morse (1995)
          "Emerging" infectious diseases can be defined as infections that have newly appeared in a population or have existed but are rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range. Among recent examples are HIV/AIDS, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Lyme disease, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (a foodborne infection caused by certain strains of Escherichia coli). Specific factors precipitating disease emergence can be identified in virtually all cases. These include ecological, environmental, or demographic factors that place people at increased contact with a previously unfamiliar microbe or its natural host or promote dissemination. These factors are increasing in prevalence; this increase, together with the ongoing evolution of viral and microbial variants and selection for drug resistance, suggests that infections will continue to emerge and probably increase and emphasizes the urgent need for effective surveillance and control. Dr. David Satcher's article and this overview inaugurate Perspectives, a regular section in this journal intended to present and develop unifying concepts and strategies for considering emerging infections and their underlying factors. The editors welcome, as contributions to the Perspectives section, overviews, syntheses, and case studies that shed light on how and why infections emerge, and how they may be anticipated and prevented.
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            Distribution and molecular detection of Theileria and Babesia in questing ticks from northern Spain.

            A total of 562 questing adult ixodid ticks, collected during 2003-05 in 10 recreational mountain areas in northern Spain, were analysed for piroplasm infection. Reverse line blot (RLB) analysis using a panel of probes for 23 piroplasm species identified 16 different piroplasms, with an overall prevalence of 9.3%. Most were Theileria spp.-positive (7.7%), 3.0% were positive for Babesia spp. and 1.4% of ticks harboured both genera. Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus, 1758), the most abundant tick in the vegetation, ranked third with regard to piroplasm infection prevalence (11.4%) after Rhipicephalus bursa (Canestrini & Fanzago, 1878) (16.0%) and Haemaphysalis punctata (Canestrini & Fanzago, 1878) (13.5%). Infection was detected in 6.2% of Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794) and in 1.1% of Haemaphysalis inermis (Birula, 1895), but was absent from Haemaphysalis concinna (Koch, 1844). Ixodes ricinus carried more piroplasm species (13), followed by H. punctata (10), D. reticulatus (8), R. bursa (3) and H. inermis (1). Although most of the positive ticks harboured a single infection (76.9%), mixed infections with two or three different piroplasm species were also detected (23.1%). The various tick-pathogen associations found are discussed and prevalences of infection in ticks are compared with previous results on piroplasms infecting animals in the same region.
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              Fleas parasitizing domestic dogs in Spain.

              In addition to their importance to veterinary clinical practice as ectoparasites, fleas of domestic dogs are of special concern because they can be vectors of disease, including zoonoses. Flea assemblages parasitizing domestic dogs usually comprise several flea species whose distribution is determined by factors acting at several scales. Knowledge of these factors will aid in assessment of the distribution patterns of flea parasitism, and is an important tool in developing control strategies and in evaluation of flea-borne disease risk in dogs and humans. In this survey we used data from 744 domestic dogs from 79 localities in Spain to explore the associations between the abundance of flea species, host-dependent factors (sex and age), and host habitat factors including abode (farm, house with garden, apartment), location (urban or rural), the presence of other pets, and dog activity (measured as the frequency with which dogs left their abode). We also considered environmental factors including the time of year and mean annual temperature and rainfall. Variations in flea community structure at infracommunity and component community levels were also explored. Four flea species were found parasitizing dogs. Ctenocephalides felis was the most abundant (88.02% of fleas identified), followed by Ctenocephalides canis (10.38%), Pulex irritans (1.47%) and Echidnophaga gallinacea (0.13%). Overall flea abundance was higher on dogs living on farms than in apartments, as was the abundance of Ct. felis, Ct. canis and P. irritans. Ct. felis was more abundant on dogs living in houses than in apartments, but the reverse was found for P. irritans. Overall flea abundance and Ct. canis abundance were highest in rural areas, whereas the presence of other pets sharing the abode was associated with higher overall flea abundance and Ct. felis abundance. Only P. irritans abundance was positively related to the activity of dogs. Ct. canis and P. irritans abundances were higher during the warm period of the year. Mean annual temperature was negatively correlated with overall, Ct. canis and P. irritans abundances, but positively related to Ct. felis abundance. Annual rainfall was negatively correlated with Ct. canis and P. irritans abundances. Variations in the number of flea species found on a dog reflected the abundance distribution patterns for each species and their associations with host habitat and environmental factors. At the component community level, flea species richness was inversely related to annual mean temperature. The structure of flea assemblages on dogs was mainly associated with host habitat and environmental variables, and not with host-dependent variables. However, a large amount of variation in flea abundance remained unexplained, suggesting the effect of other non-controlled factors.

                Author and article information

                Parasite : journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
                EDP Sciences
                August 2011
                15 August 2011
                : 18
                : 3 ( publisher-idID: parasite/2011/03 )
                : 251-260
                [1 ] Consejería de Sanidad y Bienestar Social de la Junta de Castilla y León Spain
                [2 ] Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Universidad de Alcalá Spain
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: Consuelo Giménez-Pardo, Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Alcalá, Ctra. Madrid-Barcelona, km 33.6, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain. Tel.: 34 91 885 46 36 – Fax: 34 91 885 46 60. E-mail: consuelo.gimenez@ 123456uah.es
                parasite2011183p251 10.1051/parasite/2011183251
                © PRINCEPS Editions, Paris, 2011

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 5, Equations: 0, References: 48, Pages: 10
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