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      Cost analysis on the use of rituximab and calcineurin inhibitors in children and adolescents with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome

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      Pediatric Nephrology

      Springer Nature

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          Most cited references 22

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          Rituximab for childhood-onset, complicated, frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome or steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

          Rituximab could be an effective treatment for childhood-onset, complicated, frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome (FRNS) and steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS). We investigated the efficacy and safety of rituximab in patients with high disease activity.
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            Rituximab in steroid-dependent or frequently relapsing idiopathic nephrotic syndrome.

            The outcome of steroid-dependent or frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome of minimal change disease (MCD), mesangial proliferative GN (MesGN), or FSGS may be poor and with major treatment toxicity. This academic, multicenter, off-on trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00981838) primarily evaluated the effects of rituximab therapy followed by immunosuppression withdrawal on disease recurrence in 10 children and 20 adults with MCD/MesGN (n=22) or FSGS who had suffered ≥2 recurrences over the previous year and were in steroid-induced remission for ≥1 month. Participants received one dose (n=28) or two doses of rituximab (375 mg/m(2) intravenously). At 1 year, all patients were in remission: 18 were treatment-free and 15 never relapsed. Compared with the year before rituximab treatment, total relapses decreased from 88 to 22 and the per-patient median number of relapses decreased from 2.5 (interquartile range [IQR], 2-4) to 0.5 (IQR, 0-1; P<0.001) during 1 year of follow-up. Reduction was significant across subgroups (children, adults, MCD/MesGN, and FSGS; P<0.01). After rituximab, the per-patient steroid maintenance median dose decreased from 0.27 mg/kg (IQR, 0.19-0.60) to 0 mg/kg (IQR, 0-0.23) (P<0.001), and the median cumulative dose to achieve relapse remission decreased from 19.5 mg/kg (IQR, 13.0-29.2) to 0.5 mg/kg (IQR, 0-9.4) (P<0.001). Furthermore, the mean estimated GFR increased from 111.3±25.7 to 121.8±29.2 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) (P=0.01), with the largest increases in children and in FSGS subgroups. The mean height z score slope stabilized in children (P<0.01). Treatment was well tolerated. Rituximab effectively and safely prevented recurrences and reduced the need for immunosuppression in steroid-dependent or frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome, and halted disease-associated growth deficit in children.
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              Efficacy and safety of treatment with rituximab for difficult steroid-resistant and -dependent nephrotic syndrome: multicentric report.

              The treatment of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome is often complicated by a refractory and relapsing course, with risk of drug toxicity and progressive renal failure. We report the efficacy and safety of rituximab in patients with steroid-resistant (SRNS) and steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS) refractory to standard therapy. This was a cohort study in academic, tertiary care centers in India and the United States. Patients with SRNS or SDNS, not responding to medications or showing calcineurin inhibitor toxicity, treated with two to four doses of intravenous rituximab, and followed ≥12 months were included. Remission was termed as complete, partial, or no response. Thirty-three patients with SRNS (24 initial, 9 late resistance) and 24 with SDNS, with mean ages of 12.7 ± 9.1 and 11.7 ± 2.9 years, respectively, were included. Six months after rituximab therapy, 9 (27.2%) patients with SRNS showed complete remission, 7 (21.2%) had partial remission, and 17 (51.5%) had no response. At 21.5 ± 11.5 months, remission was sustained in 15 (complete: 7, partial: 8) patients. Of 24 patients with SDNS, remission was sustained in 20 (83.3%) at 12 months and in 17 (71%) at follow-up of 16.8 ± 5.9 months. The mean difference in relapses before and 12 months after treatment with rituximab was 3.9 episodes/patient per year. Therapy with rituximab was safe and effective in inducing and maintaining remission in a significant proportion of patients with difficult SRNS and SDNS.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Pediatric Nephrology
                Pediatr Nephrol
                Springer Nature
                0931-041X
                1432-198X
                February 2018
                September 1 2017
                : 33
                : 2
                : 261-267
                Article
                10.1007/s00467-017-3789-y
                © 2017

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