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      Listeria spp. in Street-Vended Ready-to-Eat Foods


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          Street-vended ready-to-eat food sold in Egypt, including sandwiches and dishes of traditional food, was examined for the presence of Listeria species. Out of 576 samples, 24% were found to contain Listeria species. L. monocytogenes and L. innocua were isolated from 57% and 39% of the contaminated samples, respectively. Other Listeria spp. were detected with lower frequency. L. monocytogenes of ≥10 3 CFU/g were detected in 7% of the total examined samples, which represent 49% of the contaminated food samples (meat, poultry, seafood, dairy products, and products of plant origin). Most of the samples contaminated by L. monocytogenes had high levels of total viable bacterial counts. The results obtained may help to clarify the epidemiology of listeriosis in the country and draw the attention of the decision makers to issue hygienic regulations for food processing industries as well as street vendors in order to ensure safe street-vended ready-to-eat food.

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          Foodborne pathogens in milk and the dairy farm environment: food safety and public health implications.

          Milk and products derived from milk of dairy cows can harbor a variety of microorganisms and can be important sources of foodborne pathogens. The presence of foodborne pathogens in milk is due to direct contact with contaminated sources in the dairy farm environment and to excretion from the udder of an infected animal. Most milk is pasteurized, so why should the dairy industry be concerned about the microbial quality of bulk tank milk? There are several valid reasons, including (1) outbreaks of disease in humans have been traced to the consumption of unpasteurized milk and have also been traced back to pasteurized milk, (2) unpasteurized milk is consumed directly by dairy producers, farm employees, and their families, neighbors, and raw milk advocates, (3) unpasteurized milk is consumed directly by a large segment of the population via consumption of several types of cheeses manufactured from unpasteurized milk, (4) entry of foodborne pathogens via contaminated raw milk into dairy food processing plants can lead to persistence of these pathogens in biofilms, and subsequent contamination of processed milk products and exposure of consumers to pathogenic bacteria, (5) pasteurization may not destroy all foodborne pathogens in milk, and (6) inadequate or faulty pasteurization will not destroy all foodborne pathogens. Furthermore, pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes can survive and thrive in post-pasteurization processing environments, thus leading to recontamination of dairy products. These pathways pose a risk to the consumer from direct exposure to foodborne pathogens present in unpasteurized dairy products as well as dairy products that become re-contaminated after pasteurization. The purpose of this communication is to review literature published on the prevalence of bacterial foodborne pathogens in milk and in the dairy environment, and to discuss public health and food safety issues associated with foodborne pathogens found in the dairy environment. Information presented supports the model in which the presence of pathogens depends on ingestion of contaminated feed followed by amplification in bovine hosts and fecal dissemination in the farm environment. The final outcome of this cycle is a constantly maintained reservoir of foodborne pathogens that can reach humans by direct contact, ingestion of raw contaminated milk or cheese, or contamination during the processing of milk products. Isolation of bacterial pathogens with similar biotypes from dairy farms and from outbreaks of human disease substantiates this hypothesis.
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            Listeria monocytogenes and listeric infections.

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              Cold stress tolerance of Listeria monocytogenes: A review of molecular adaptive mechanisms and food safety implications.

              The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes has many physiological adaptations that enable survival under a wide range of environmental conditions. The microbes overcome various types of stress, including the cold stress associated with low temperatures in food-production and storage environments. Cold stress adaptation mechanisms are therefore an important attribute of L. monocytogenes, enabling these food pathogens to survive and proliferate to reach minimal infectious levels on refrigerated foods. This phenomenon is a function of many molecular adaptation mechanisms. Therefore, an improved understanding of how cold stress is sensed and adaptation measures implemented by L. monocytogenes may facilitate the development of better ways of controlling these pathogens in food and related environments. Research over the past few years has highlighted some of the molecular aspects of cellular mechanisms behind cold stress adaptation in L. monocytogenes. This review provides an overview of the molecular and physiological constraints of cold stress and discusses the various cellular cold stress response mechanisms in L. monocytogenes, as well as their implications for food safety.

                Author and article information

                Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis
                Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                12 December 2011
                : 2011
                : 968031
                1Department of Food and Environmental Microbiology, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo 12311, Egypt
                2Department of Environmental Microbiology, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Al-Anfushy, Alexandria 11695, Egypt
                3Observatory of Nutrition and Food Safety in Developing Countries, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100, Spain
                Author notes
                *Moustafa El-Shenawy: m_elshenawy@ 123456hotmail.com

                Academic Editor: Ashrafus Safa

                Copyright © 2011 Moustafa El-Shenawy et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 9 September 2011
                : 11 November 2011
                Research Article

                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                Infectious disease & Microbiology


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