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      Specific dietary carbohydrates differentially influence the life span and fecundity of Drosophila melanogaster.

      The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences

      Oxford University Press (OUP)

      Fecundity., Drosophila melanogaster, Sucrose, Life span, Carbohydrate diet

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          Abstract

          The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster is a broadly used model for gerontological research. Many studies are dedicated to understanding nutritional effects on ageing; however, the influence of dietary carbohydrate type and dosage is still poorly understood. We show that among three carbohydrates tested, fructose, glucose, and sucrose, the latter decreased life span by 13%-27%, being present in concentrations of 2%-20% in the diet. Life-span shortening by sucrose was accompanied by an increase in age-independent mortality. Sucrose also dramatically decreased the fecundity of the flies. The differences in life span and fecundity were determined to be unrelated to differential carbohydrate ingestion. The highest mitochondrial protein density was observed in flies fed sucrose-containing diet. However, this parameter was not affected by carbohydrate amount in the diet. Fly sensitivity to oxidative stress, induced by menadione, was increased in aged flies and was slightly affected by type and concentration of carbohydrate. In general, it has been demonstrated that sucrose, commonly used in recipes of Drosophila laboratory food, may shorten life span and lower egg-laying capability on the diets with very low protein content.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Fructose and metabolic diseases: new findings, new questions.

          There has been much concern regarding the role of dietary fructose in the development of metabolic diseases. This concern arises from the continuous increase in fructose (and total added caloric sweeteners consumption) in recent decades, and from the increased use of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as a sweetener. A large body of evidence shows that a high-fructose diet leads to the development of obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia in rodents. In humans, fructose has long been known to increase plasma triglyceride concentrations. In addition, when ingested in large amounts as part of a hypercaloric diet, it can cause hepatic insulin resistance, increased total and visceral fat mass, and accumulation of ectopic fat in the liver and skeletal muscle. These early effects may be instrumental in causing, in the long run, the development of the metabolic syndrome. There is however only limited evidence that fructose per se, when consumed in moderate amounts, has deleterious effects. Several effects of a high-fructose diet in humans can be observed with high-fat or high-glucose diets as well, suggesting that an excess caloric intake may be the main factor involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome. The major source of fructose in our diet is with sweetened beverages (and with other products in which caloric sweeteners have been added). The progressive replacement of sucrose by HFCS is however unlikely to be directly involved in the epidemy of metabolic disease, because HFCS appears to have basically the same metabolic effects as sucrose. Consumption of sweetened beverages is however clearly associated with excess calorie intake, and an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases through an increase in body weight. This has led to the recommendation to limit the daily intake of sugar calories. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Expression of the Ciona intestinalis alternative oxidase (AOX) in Drosophila complements defects in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

            Defects in mitochondrial OXPHOS are associated with diverse and mostly intractable human disorders. The single-subunit alternative oxidase (AOX) found in many eukaryotes, but not in arthropods or vertebrates, offers a potential bypass of the OXPHOS cytochrome chain under conditions of pathological OXPHOS inhibition. We have engineered Ciona intestinalis AOX for conditional expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Ubiquitous AOX expression produced no detrimental phenotype in wild-type flies. However, mitochondrial suspensions from AOX-expressing flies exhibited a significant cyanide-resistant substrate oxidation, and the flies were partially resistant to both cyanide and antimycin. AOX expression was able to complement the semilethality of partial knockdown of both cyclope (COXVIc) and the complex IV assembly factor Surf1. It also rescued the locomotor defect and excess mitochondrial ROS production of flies mutated in dj-1beta, a Drosophila homolog of the human Parkinson's disease gene DJ1. AOX appears to offer promise as a wide-spectrum therapeutic tool in OXPHOS disorders.
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              Drosophila melanogaster's history as a human commensal.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                23723431
                10.1093/gerona/glt077

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