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      Escherichia coli attachment to model particulates: The effects of bacterial cell characteristics and particulate properties

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          Abstract

          E. coli bacteria move in streams freely in a planktonic state or attached to suspended particulates. Attachment is a dynamic process, and the fraction of attached microorganisms is thought to be affected by both bacterial characteristics and particulate properties. In this study, we investigated how the properties of cell surfaces and stream particulates influence attachment. Attachment assays were conducted for 77 E. coli strains and three model particulates (ferrihydrite, Ca-montmorillonite, or corn stover) under environmentally relevant conditions. Surface area, particle size distribution, and total carbon content were determined for each type of particulate. Among the three particulates, attachment fractions to corn stover were significantly larger than the attachments to 2-line ferrihydrite ( p-value = 0.0036) and Ca-montmorillonite ( p-value = 0.022). Furthermore, attachment to Ca-montmorillonite and corn stover was successfully modeled by a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) using cell characteristics as predictor variables. The natural logarithm of the net charge on the bacterial surface had a significant, positive, and linear impact on the attachment of E. coli bacteria to Ca-montmorillonite ( p-value = 0.013), but it did not significantly impact the attachment to corn stover ( p-value = 0.36). The large diversities in cell characteristics among 77 E. coli strains, particulate properties, and attachment fractions clearly demonstrated the inadequacy of using a static parameter or linear coefficient to predict the attachment behavior of E. coli in stream water quality models.

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          Most cited references65

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          Adherence of bacteria to hydrocarbons: A simple method for measuring cell-surface hydrophobicity

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            Biofouling in water systems--cases, causes and countermeasures.

            H Flemming (2002)
            Biofouling is referred to as the unwanted deposition and growth of biofilms. This phenomenon can occur in an extremely wide range of situations, from the colonisation of medical devices to the production of ultra-pure, drinking and process water and the fouling of ship hulls, pipelines and reservoirs. Although biofouling occurs in such different areas, it has a common cause, which is the biofilm. Biofilms are the most successful form of life on Earth and tolerate high amounts of biocides. For a sustainable anti-fouling strategy, an integrated approach is suggested which includes the analysis of the fouling situation, a selection of suitable components from the anti-fouling menu and an effective and representative monitoring of biofilm development.
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              pH-dependent surface charging and points of zero charge. IV. Update and new approach.

              The recently published points of zero charge (PZC) and isoelectric points (IEPs) of various materials are compiled to update the previous compilation [M. Kosmulski, Surface Charging and Points of Zero Charge, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2009]. Unlike in previous compilations by the same author [Chemical Properties of Material Surfaces, Dekker, New York, 2001; J. Colloid Interface Sci. 253 (2002) 77; J. Colloid Interface Sci. 275 (2004) 214; J. Colloid Interface Sci. 298 (2006) 730], the materials are sorted not only by the chemical formula, but also by specific product, that is, by brand name (commercially available materials), and by recipe (home-synthesized materials). This new approach indicated that the relatively consistent PZC/IEP reported in the literature for materials having the same chemical formula are due to biased choice of specimens to be studied. Specimens which have PZC/IEP close to the "recommended" value are selected more often than other specimens (PZC/IEP not reported before or PZC/IEP reported, but different from the "recommended" value). Thus, the previously published PZC/IEP act as a self-fulfilling prophecy.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: ValidationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: Data curationRole: Methodology
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Funding acquisitionRole: MethodologyRole: ValidationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: MethodologyRole: ResourcesRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                14 September 2017
                2017
                : 12
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, United States of America
                [2 ] Department of Microbiology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, United States of America
                [3 ] Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, United States of America
                [4 ] Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, United States of America
                [5 ] Department of Statistics, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, United States of America
                Purdue University, UNITED STATES
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-17-09045
                10.1371/journal.pone.0184664
                5599003
                28910343
                6d4c6ef6-a1d0-41c2-88dc-d0e16c8004a3
                © 2017 Liang et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 3, Pages: 19
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: National Science Foundation
                Award ID: CBET-1236510
                Funding for this work was provided by the National Science Foundation (CBET-1236510); opinions, findings, and conclusions are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparatin of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Physical Sciences
                Materials Science
                Materials by Structure
                Mixtures
                Particulates
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Experimental Organism Systems
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                Maize
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Model Organisms
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                Biology and Life Sciences
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                Eukaryota
                Plants
                Grasses
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                Research and Analysis Methods
                Experimental Organism Systems
                Plant and Algal Models
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                Earth Sciences
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                Sedimentary Geology
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                Biology and Life Sciences
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                Biology and Life Sciences
                Biochemistry
                Glycobiology
                Polysaccharides
                Exopolysaccharides
                Physical Sciences
                Mathematics
                Probability Theory
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                Biology and Life Sciences
                Microbiology
                Medical Microbiology
                Microbial Pathogens
                Bacterial Pathogens
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
                Pathogens
                Microbial Pathogens
                Bacterial Pathogens
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Biochemistry
                Glycobiology
                Polysaccharides
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                All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

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