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      Advanced technologies for future ground-based, laser-interferometric gravitational wave detectors

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          Abstract

          We present a review of modern optical techniques being used and developed for the field of gravitational wave detection. We describe the current state-of-the-art of gravitational waves detector technologies with regard to optical layouts, suspensions and test masses. We discuss the dominant sources and noise in each of these subsystems and the developments that will help mitigate them for future generations of detectors. We very briefly summarise some of the novel astrophysics that will be possible with these upgraded detectors.

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          Most cited references 177

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          LIGO: The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory.

          The goal of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) Project is to detect and study astrophysical gravitational waves and use data from them for research in physics and astronomy. LIGO will support studies concerning the nature and nonlinear dynamics of gravity, the structures of black holes, and the equation of state of nuclear matter. It will also measure the masses, birth rates, collisions, and distributions of black holes and neutron stars in the universe and probe the cores of supernovae and the very early universe. The technology for LIGO has been developed during the past 20 years. Construction will begin in 1992, and under the present schedule, LIGO's gravitational-wave searches will begin in 1998.
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            Photo-induced charge transfer across the interface between organic molecular crystals and polymers

            Photo-induced charge transfer of positive and negative charges across the interface between an ordered organic semiconductor and a polymeric insulator is observed in the field-effect experiments. Immobilization of the transferred charge in the polymer results in a shift of the field-effect threshold of polaronic conduction along the interface in the semiconductor, which allows for direct measurements of the charge transfer rate. The transfer occurs when the photon energy exceeds the absorption edge of the semiconductor. The direction of the transverse electric field at the interface determines the sign of the transferred charge; the transfer rate is controlled by the field magnitude and light intensity.
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              Caustic activation of rain showers

              We show quantitatively how the collision rate of droplets of visible moisture in turbulent air increases very abruptly as the intensity of the turbulence passes a threshold, due to the formation of fold caustics in their velocity field. The formation of caustics is an activated process, in which a measure of the intensity of the turbulence, termed the Stokes number St, is analogous to temperature in a chemical reaction: the rate of collision contains a factor exp(-C/St). Our results are relevant to the long-standing problem of explaining the rapid onset of rainfall from convecting clouds. Our theory does not involve spatial clustering of particles.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Mod Opt
                J Mod Opt
                TMOP
                tmop20
                Journal of Modern Optics
                Taylor & Francis
                0950-0340
                1362-3044
                12 December 2014
                25 June 2014
                : 61
                : sup1
                : S10-S45
                Affiliations
                [ a ]SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow , Glasgow, UK.
                Author notes
                920934
                10.1080/09500340.2014.920934
                4311950
                © 2014 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The moral rights of the named author(s) have been asserted.

                Counts
                Figures: 16, Tables: 0, Equations: 199, References: 147, Pages: 36
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                Topical Reviews

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