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      The Association of Sleep Duration with Breakfast Patterns and Snack Behaviors among Chinese Children Aged 6 to 17 Years: Chinese National Nutrition and Health Surveillance 2010-2012.

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          Abstract

          A significant increase in the prevalence of short sleep among children has been observed. Short sleep may be associated with unhealthy breakfast and snacking behaviors. The purpose of the current study was to explore the associations of short sleep with breakfast and snacking behaviors among children. Data were obtained from the 2010-2012 China National Nutrition and Health Surveillance (CNNHS). A total of 5254 children aged 6 to 17 years were included. Sleep duration was classified into three categories: moderate sleep, slightly short sleep, and severely short sleep. Breakfast behaviors included skipping breakfast, food diversity, intake of energy and macronutrients, and their proportion of daily total intake. Snack behaviors included snack consumption rate/frequency, types, intake of energy and macronutrients, and proportion of daily total intake. Multiple linear regression and multivariate logistic regression were used for analysis, with models adjusted for the potential effects of gender, age, region, and family income level. The bootstrapping method was used to calculate the 95% confidence intervals of the model statistics. Results showed that slightly short sleep (OR = 1.15, 95%CI: 1.00, 1.33)) and severely short sleep (OR = 1.36, 95%CI: 1.04, 1.77) was related to higher rates of skipping breakfast compared to moderate sleep. Severely short sleep was associated with higher energy (β = 28.44, 95%CI: 31.97, 44.70), carbohydrate (β = 6.62, 95%CI: 8.29, 8.84) and protein (β = 1.17, 95%CI: 1.44, 1.70) intake at breakfast and breakfast accounted for a higher proportion of total daily energy (β = 1.39, 95%CI: 1.48, 2.52), protein (β = 2.26, 95%CI: 3.16, 5.84) and carbohydrate (β = 0.83, 95%CI: 0.07, 3.41). Severely short sleep was associated with higher energy (β = 27.4, 95%CI: 18.64, 69.41), protein (β = 0.8, 95%CI: 0.48, 2.40), and fat (β = 1.40, 95%CI: 1.21, 3.16) intake at snacks and snacks accounted for a higher proportion of total daily protein intake (β = 1.23, 95%CI: 0.71, 3.58) and fat intake (β = 2.74, 95%CI: 3.13, 6.09). Slightly short sleep was associated with higher energy (β = 7.28, 95%CI: 0.15, 28.13) and carbohydrate (β = 1.67, 95%CI: 0.86, 5.73) intake at snacks and snacks accounted for a higher proportion of total daily carbohydrate intake. Children with severely short sleep were more likely to choose sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) as snacks (16.5%) and intake them more frequently, at a daily consumption of 204.7 g and 26.7 g per night. Overall, short sleep was associated with unhealthy breakfast patterns and snack behaviors among children. Children with short sleep had higher intake of energy and macronutrients at breakfast and snacks compared with those with moderate sleep. Promoting adequate sleep among children may have a positive effect on developing healthy eating behaviors.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Nutrients
          Nutrients
          MDPI AG
          2072-6643
          2072-6643
          May 27 2022
          : 14
          : 11
          Affiliations
          [1 ] National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.
          [2 ] Key Laboratory of Trace Element Nutrition, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, Beijing 100050, China.
          Article
          nu14112247
          10.3390/nu14112247
          9182912
          35684046
          6d4fe8ff-ab5c-4b18-b372-4b46ef43abfd
          History

          breakfast,children,eating behaviors,sleep duration,snacks
          breakfast, children, eating behaviors, sleep duration, snacks

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