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      The Role of Novel Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease: Focus on Adiponectin and Leptin

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          Abstract

          Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a major cause of premature death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), including renal transplant recipients. Both interplay of traditional cardiovascular and renal specific risk factors have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death in patients with CKD. Recently, there has been great interest in the role of novel biomarkers, in particular adiponectin and leptin, and its association with CVD in the CKD population. Adiponectin is a multifunctional adipocyte-derived protein with anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic and insulin sensitizing activity. Recent observational studies have shown adiponectin to be a novel risk marker of CVD in patients with stages 1 to 5 CKD. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that promotes weight loss by decreasing food intake. Similarly, there are observational studies to support an association between leptin and CVD, including patients with CKD. In the CKD population, leptin may be associated with uremic cachexia and subsequent increased mortality. This review aims to summarize the pathophysiological and potential clinical roles of these cardiovascular biomarkers in patients with CKD.

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          Most cited references 77

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          Clinical epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in chronic renal disease.

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            Plasma concentrations of a novel, adipose-specific protein, adiponectin, in type 2 diabetic patients.

            Adiponectin is a novel, adipose-specific protein abundantly present in the circulation, and it has antiatherogenic properties. We analyzed the plasma adiponectin concentrations in age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects with and without coronary artery disease (CAD). Plasma levels of adiponectin in the diabetic subjects without CAD were lower than those in nondiabetic subjects (6.6+/-0.4 versus 7.9+/-0.5 microg/mL in men, 7.6+/-0.7 versus 11.7+/-1.0 microg/mL in women; P<0.001). The plasma adiponectin concentrations of diabetic patients with CAD were lower than those of diabetic patients without CAD (4.0+/-0.4 versus 6.6+/-0.4 microg/mL, P<0.001 in men; 6.3+/-0.8 versus 7.6+/-0. 7 microg/mL in women). In contrast, plasma levels of leptin did not differ between diabetic patients with and without CAD. The presence of microangiopathy did not affect the plasma adiponectin levels in diabetic patients. Significant, univariate, inverse correlations were observed between adiponectin levels and fasting plasma insulin (r=-0.18, P<0.01) and glucose (r=-0.26, P<0.001) levels. In multivariate analysis, plasma insulin did not independently affect the plasma adiponectin levels. BMI, serum triglyceride concentration, and the presence of diabetes or CAD remained significantly related to plasma adiponectin concentrations. Weight reduction significantly elevated plasma adiponectin levels in the diabetic subjects as well as the nondiabetic subjects. These results suggest that the decreased plasma adiponectin concentrations in diabetes may be an indicator of macroangiopathy.
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              Leptin modulates the T-cell immune response and reverses starvation-induced immunosuppression.

              Nutritional deprivation suppresses immune function. The cloning of the obese gene and identification of its protein product leptin has provided fundamental insight into the hypothalamic regulation of body weight. Circulating levels of this adipocyte-derived hormone are proportional to fat mass but maybe lowered rapidly by fasting or increased by inflammatory mediators. The impaired T-cell immunity of mice now known to be defective in leptin (ob/ob) or its receptor (db/db), has never been explained. Impaired cell-mediated immunity and reduced levels of leptin are both features of low body weight in humans. Indeed, malnutrition predisposes to death from infectious diseases. We report here that leptin has a specific effect on T-lymphocyte responses, differentially regulating the proliferation of naive and memory T cells. Leptin increased Th1 and suppressed Th2 cytokine production. Administration of leptin to mice reversed the immunosuppressive effects of acute starvation. Our findings suggest a new role for leptin in linking nutritional status to cognate cellular immune function, and provide a molecular mechanism to account for the immune dysfunction observed in starvation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Curr Cardiol Rev
                CCR
                Current Cardiology Reviews
                Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.
                1573-403X
                1875-6557
                November 2008
                : 4
                : 4
                : 287-292
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Nephrology, University of Queensland, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
                [2 ]Diamantina Institute for Cancer, Immunology and Metabolic Medicine University of Queensland, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
                Author notes
                [* ]Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Renal Medicine, Level 2, ARTS Building, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Ipswich Rd, Woolloongabba, Brisbane Qld 4102, Australia; Tel: +61 7 3240 5080; Fax: +61 7 3240 5480; E-mail: Nikky_Isbel@ 123456health.qld.gov.au
                Article
                CCR-4-287
                10.2174/157340308786349516
                2801860
                20066136
                ©2008 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/), which permits unrestrictive use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Article

                Cardiovascular Medicine

                cardiovascular disease, adiponectin, kidney disease., leptin, biomarker

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