Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a major cause of premature death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), including renal transplant recipients. Both interplay of traditional cardiovascular and renal specific risk factors have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death in patients with CKD. Recently, there has been great interest in the role of novel biomarkers, in particular adiponectin and leptin, and its association with CVD in the CKD population. Adiponectin is a multifunctional adipocyte-derived protein with anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic and insulin sensitizing activity. Recent observational studies have shown adiponectin to be a novel risk marker of CVD in patients with stages 1 to 5 CKD. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that promotes weight loss by decreasing food intake. Similarly, there are observational studies to support an association between leptin and CVD, including patients with CKD. In the CKD population, leptin may be associated with uremic cachexia and subsequent increased mortality. This review aims to summarize the pathophysiological and potential clinical roles of these cardiovascular biomarkers in patients with CKD.